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Updates
  • #500STRONG

    New Team, New Shenanigans
    Jan 09

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    So pleased and proud to be part of this amazing group of hardworking people. Watch out 2014: #500STRONG is going to kill it.

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  • Mediating

    Aug 23

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    SCRIPT EXCERPT: Many people today, particularly those living comfortably in the global North, want to do something to solve the problems of the world, such as the problem of global poverty. They want to act upon poverty, alleviate poverty, volunteer to end poverty—but we must ask: What motivates us to travel short or long distances, to spend a day, a week, many months, or even a spare 15 minutes,...

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  • Mediating

    #GlobalPOV=Doing Good Responsibly, Reports NextBillion
    Jul 29

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    NextBillion, an initiative of the World Resources Institute’s Markets and Enterprise Program in partnership with the William Davidson Institute (WDI) at the University of Michigan, is a web forum for the community of business leaders, social entrepreneurs, NGOs, policy makers and academics who want to explore the connection between development and enterprise. NextBillion recently highlighted The #GlobalPOV Project as part of its “NexThought Monday” coverage: Hardly a day goes...

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  • Mediating

    Jul 02

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    SCRIPT EXCERPT: Welcome to the world-class city. It has towers, expressways, shopping malls, airports, private schools, and gated condominiums with golf courses, swimming pools and tennis courts. It has no slums, but the world-class city is built by slums — a paradox isn’t it? To see the city from the slum provides a different view, a view of the global urban future. Based on Prof. Ananya Roy’s popular Global...

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  • Mediating

    May 06

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    The third video in The #GlobalPOV Project series is an exploration of the poverty business. SCRIPT EXCERPT: The poor pay more for everything, and such transactions are highly profitable for those selling goods and services to the poor. Profits are made on the labor of the poor, the consumption of the poor, and the debt of the poor; meanwhile the poor remain — poor. So who profits from poverty? Based...

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  • Mediating

    #GlobalPOV on Mediabistro’s “AllTwitter”
    May 03

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    AllTwitter, a Mediabistro website devoted to breaking Twitter news, highlighted The #GlobalPOV Project as part of its “Pay It Forward Friday” coverage. Regarding the #GlobalPOV video series, AllTwitter writes: And the online videos they’re creating are intended to help “crystallize the nuanced teachings of Berkeley’s biggest minor, Global Poverty and Practice, offered by the Blum Center for Developing Economies.” The videos are posted online so those outside of the school can...

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  • Reporting

    ABC’s 20/20 Features Viral Video Footage of Jonas Brothers Stampede
    Apr 26

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    ABC’s primetime news magazine program, “20/20,” aired an investigative report on social behavior and crowd chaos that featured the viral stampede footage I shot using my smartphone at a Jonas Brothers concert in May, 2010. (ABC Air Date: Apr. 26, 2013, Episode: “In An Instant”). NOTE: This post is an update to a previous post tracking the viral popularity of (and subsequent mainstream media interest in) the stampede footage when I posted...

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  • Mediating

    Borgen Project Highlights #GlobalPOV Project
    Apr 16

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    The Borgen Project, a nonprofit organization with mission to fight extreme poverty through policy (not charity!) intervention, recently published an article highlighting The #GlobalPOV Project’s mixed-media approach to curriculum development and pedagogy. Check out the article here. To learn more about The Borgen Project, visit the website or read its mission statement below: The Borgen Project believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to...

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  • Mediating

    #GlobalPOV Is “Groundbreaking,” Reports UC Berkeley NewsCenter
    Apr 09

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    The UC Berkeley NewsCenter recently sat down and interviewed the #GlobalPOV team to discuss the theory behind the project, the production process, and the fact that Prof. Roy would have had an easier time writing and publishing a book already. (But then that would be boring, no?) The article describes the project as “a groundbreaking alternative to dominant forms of online education, a hot topic that’s on the minds...

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  • Mediating

    Mar 13

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    Prof. Roy micro-lectured into a micro-phone. I painstakingly cut some denim pockets with an X-ACTO knife. And Abby tried to brew tea in cold water. This vid resulted. The following is a behind-the-scenes look into the making of #GlobalPOV’s “Can We Shop To End Poverty?” video. The #GlobalPOV Project is a program of the Global Poverty and Practice (GPP) Minor. Based at the Blum Center for Developing Economies, University of California, Berkeley, the GPP Minor...

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  • Mediating

    Mar 12

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    The second video in The #GlobalPOV Project series is an exploration of ethical consumerism and fair trade interventions. SCRIPT EXCERPT: However tempting it may be to believe that we save lives, empower women and do good with our purchases, the impacts of our consumption on poverty cannot be reduced to mere product labels. Consumers need to understand the life histories of global commodities and advocate for changes in how...

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  • Mediating

    Blum Center News: #GlobalPOV Encourages Students To Become Public Scholars
    Dec 04

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    The #GlobalPOV Project’s in-class tweeting component was covered in the Fall 2012 edition of the Blum Center newsletter. In the article, writer Javier Kordi notes: Being a public medium, Twitter allows anyone to join the conversation, but also forces Berkeley students to think of themselves as public scholars— everything they post falls under the scrutiny of the global community. . . . Tara Graham, the architect of this project,...

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  • Mediating

    Nov 29

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    Prof. Roy yacked on and on about Bono. Abby did some doodling. I shoved a camera in everyone’s face. This vid resulted. The following is a behind-the-scenes look into the making of The #GlobalPOV Project’s “Who Sees Poverty?” pilot video. The #GlobalPOV Project is a program of the Global Poverty and Practice (GPP) Minor. Based at the Blum Center for Developing Economies at the University of California, Berkeley, the...

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  • Mediating

    Nov 27

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    SCRIPT EXCERPT: Poverty exists. That it exists, that it persists, in the 21st century is an obscenity. We want to end this poverty. We want to make poverty history. But we have to ask ourselves: Who is the “we” who sees poverty? When we see poverty, what is that we see? And finally, how do we act upon these ways of seeing? Based on Prof. Ananya Roy’s popular Global...

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  • Mediating

    Daily Cal Talks Twitter In The Classroom
    Oct 16

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    The Daily Californian, the student-run UC Berkeley paper of record, visited Prof. Ananya Roy’s “Global Poverty: Challenges and Hopes In The New Millennium” class this week to explore our use of Twitter in a large lecture hall setting. “By projecting tweets pertaining to the class on a screen, professors are able to use teaching methods that allow large groups of students to interact with one another and the professor...

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  • Mediating

    #GlobalPOV: From Public University To Twitterverse
    Sep 27

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    The following was originally published via the #GlobalPOV Blog on the Blum Center for Developing Economies website. I co-authored the piece with Prof. Ananya Roy, Education Director of the Global Poverty and Practice Minor at the University of California, Berkeley. In it, we seek to explain the logic behind The #GlobalPOV Project’s Twitter integration and experimentation. By now, it’s common knowledge that Twitter and other forms of social media are...

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  • Reporting

    OPINION: Military, Money & Motives In Egypt
    Feb 18

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    The following was originally published via the Harvard University Press Blog. I co-authored the piece with Nezar AlSayyad, Professor of Architecture and Urban History, and Chair of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. “Egypt has passed through a critical period in her recent history characterized by bribery, mischief, and the absence of governmental stability . . . Accordingly, we have undertaken to clean ourselves up...

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  • Reporting

    Syrian President Bashar al-Assad To Me: “Ask The People If I Am Their Dictator”
    Dec 21

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    In December 2010, days before a street vendor in Tunisia self-immolated and effectively set the Middle East region afire with a wave of popular uprisings, I had the opportunity to accompany an academic delegation to Bashar al-Assad’s presidential palace in Damascus, Syria. I was the only journalist in the delegation, so I was able to ask Assad a series of questions about his leadership style (does he consider himself a dictator?),...

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  • Reporting

    May 15

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    The Jonas Brothers launched their 2010 world tour by giving a free concert at The Grove in Los Angeles, Calif., on May 15, 2010. Over 25,000 adoring fans showed up and made a mad rush for the stage, trampling over each other and security barriers in the process. Chaos ensued, but no injuries were reported. I was there to capture the madness on my smartphone (see above). Nick and...

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  • Reporting

    News Statesman Mag: Sampling of Published Work
    Jul 23

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    While taking a University of Southern California foreign reporting class in London, England, during the summer of 2009, I had the opportunity to work as a web editor for the New Statesman magazine. The following is a sampling of the work produced during this time. I mostly reported U.S. political news stories for the website, but I also had the opportunity to contribute research assistance and book reviews to the print publication....

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  • Reporting

    Race In America: ’08 HuffPo Election Coverage Generates Online Debate
    Oct 14

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    I had the opportunity to report for The Huffington Post’s “Off-The-Bus” election coverage team while studying journalism on an Annenberg Graduate Fellowship at the University of Southern California. The following story highlights excerpts from my interview with L.A. radio host Joe Hicks, a conservative who said he intended to vote for then-presidential candidate John McCain. The story was one of the most popular on the HuffPo site at the time...

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  • So Tweet Me Maybe?

    Sep 12

    Diflucan and monistat

    Written by Tara Graham

    Tweets by @LilMissWordy

    Read More 0 Tweet
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My Students
  • Diflucan and monistat

    Fencing Policies is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Maria Esparza during the 2013 spring semester. ACCORDING...

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  • Diflucan and monistat

    Literacy Lockup is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Katherine Fleeman during the 2013 spring semester. ACCORDING...

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  • Diflucan and monistat

    SPACExRACE is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Nishant Budhraja during the 2013 spring semester. ACCORDING TO...

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  • Diflucan and monistat

    The Conflict Medium is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Rashad Sisemore in my online research and...

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  • Diflucan and monistat

    Poverty Pitch is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Dominique Martinez in my online research and web...

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  • Diflucan and monistat

    Musical Bark is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Erica Smolin in my online research and web...

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  • Diflucan and monistat

    Righteous Eats is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Rachel Soeharto in my online research and web...

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  • Diflucan and monistat

    Bursting the Bubble is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Nupur Behera during the 2012 spring...

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  • Diflucan and monistat

    Fist Pump The World is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Kyle Meshna in my international reporting...

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  • Diflucan and monistat

    Media, Politics & Society: The Arab World In The Global Context is a website I produced to house all...

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Résumé

Diflucan online in canada

Diflucan and monistat


CLICK HERE to view the most up-to-date version of my CV, along with testimonials from former managers, teammates, collaborators and students.


Diflucan and monistat

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, Los Angeles

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, Berkeley


Diflucan and monistat

Oct. 2013 — May 2016 | DIRECTOR, BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT & GLOBAL PROGRAMS
500 Startups, Silicon Valley, CA, USA

I led content, branding, marketing, operations, and partnerships for business development & events at 500 Startups. With aim to educate startup and investor audiences, grow the #500STRONG community worldwide, and produce profitable programming, my responsibilities included:

  • Diflucan online in canada

    The crisis facing long-term care is getting the attention of diflucan online in canada the president and members of Congress, raising hopes among stakeholders that reform might be on the way.Demand for long-term care has increased in recent years as the aging population grows, and a wave of baby boomers retire in coming decades. But as of now, the long-term care system is failing to meet the needs of the current population. It's fragmented, expensive and often inaccessible for low-and-middle diflucan online in canada income aging adults and people with disabilities.

    While most people are cared for at home by unpaid caregivers, lawmakers have looked to expand access to home and community services covered by Medicaid, the largest payer of long-term care in the U.S."Long-term care is in a real crisis in this country," said Rep. Debbie Dingell (D-Mich.), who is working on legislation to expand access to home-and-community based services (HCBS.) "There's no meaningful long-term care coverage in the U.S.," said Dingell, who noted that she is one of the "lucky ones" who has private long-term care coverage.A friend advised her to buy a policy when she diflucan online in canada was younger. But most people don't have that option.

    They can't afford the premiums—Dingell said hers are thousands of dollars per month."The need doesn't go away" diflucan online in canada just because people can't afford it, she said. Long-term care is typically defined as support or assistance for people who need help with daily living needs, like dressing, bathing or eating—most commonly needed by aging adults and people with intellectual or developmental disabilities. These services can be offered in institutions like nursing homes or in people's homes or communities through assisted living or adult day care centers.About 14 million adults are in need of long-term care support and services as of 2019, according to diflucan online in canada a report from the nonpartisan Congressional Research Service (CRS.) About 60% of people will need assistance with daily needs like dressing or driving to appointments at some of their lives, according to the Administration on Aging.

    The fact that 40% of antifungal medication deaths occurred in nursing homes has forced lawmakers and families to reconsider care for aging adults and people with disabilities."The diflucan has really shown a spotlight on long-term care and the need to address issues within the system," said Rhonda Richards, senior legislative representative in government affairs at AARP.Most seniors don't use Medicaid to pay for long-term care because they make too much to qualify for it. But for those who do qualify, it's critical, albeit flawed, advocates say.While Medicaid covers stays in institutions like nursing homes and home healthcare for people with low-incomes and some people with disabilities, coverage of most other home and community based services that help people stay in their homes—like bathing, dressing, and meal preparation, are optional for states to cover, and expensive for diflucan online in canada patients and families to pay for out-of-pocket. Most people are cared for More than 800,000 people are on wait lists for HCBS services covered by Medicaid.

    Advocates caution the number of people on wait lists isn't a good measure of how many people need care - thousands more people are cared for in nursing homes or diflucan online in canada by unpaid caregivers. And demand will increase as the aging population grows and better technology and medical care help people with intellectual and developmental disabilities live longer. President Joe diflucan online in canada Biden has proposed $400 billion investment in HCBS, which will likely be included by Congress in the upcoming infrastructure bill, potentially through an increased FMAP to states tied to increased pay for workers and move more people off of the wait lists.But some lawmakers are taking a long-term look at the issue.

    Legislation being worked on by Rep. Dingell, Sens diflucan online in canada. Bob Casey (D-Pa.), Maggie Hassan (D-N.H.) and Sherrod Brown (D-Ohio) would make coverage of HCBS mandatory under Medicaid, in an effort to eliminate the institutional bias that experts say the current structure supports.Under a draft version of the HCBS Access Act, coverage of integrated day services, personal care attendants, direct support professionals, home health aids, private duty nursing, homemakers, chore assistance, companionship services, support for caregivers and many other services that help aging adults and people with disabilities stay in their homes would all be mandatory under Medicaid.

    States would receive a 100 % FMAP to cover those services.Reforming Medicaid coverage of long-term care is a great first step, experts diflucan online in canada say, but it leaves out millions of people who don't qualify for Medicaid but also don't make enough money to pay for care out-of-pocket. "There are millions of people like that, who are just middle income people. They worked hard all their lives and did the right thing, but they never could save enough, so if they need long-term care in their old age, they just can't afford it," said Howard Gleckman, a senior fellow at the Urban Institute.Private long-term care insurance isn't very popular, likely due to high premiums, with only 7.5 million Americans covered, according to the American Association for Long-Term Care Insurance.The vast majority of those people will be cared for by family members—unpaid caregivers whom studies diflucan online in canada show can experience negative financial, mental and physical impacts during the period they are helping their relatives."There's a cost to the family caregivers in society, which is not insubstantial," Gleckman said.

    Some people spend down their savings and assets until they're poor enough to qualify for Medicaid coverage of long-term care services. In many states, people who have more than diflucan online in canada $2,000 are not eligible for Medicaid. Rep.

    Jan Schakowsky (D-Ill.) said she wants to look at ways diflucan online in canada to get more people qualified for Medicaid coverage. People shouldn't have to make themselves destitute in order to qualify, she said. "There may be ways, especially when looking at asset diflucan online in canada limitations, that we can include more people," she said.

    Dingell said "We are working closely with stakeholders to ensure that we're making long-term care and HCBS as widely available as possible." Gleckman has recommended a public insurance program that helps people pay for long-term care, similar to what is offered in other countries like France and Germany. People would pay into it over the course of their lives, like Social diflucan online in canada Security. A draft bill by Rep.

    Thomas Suozzi (D-N.Y.) would create a federal long-term care insurance program, funded by payroll taxes."We have no system in this country to pay for long-term care right now," said Katie Smith Sloan, president and CEO of LeadingAge, which represents thousands of nonprofit organizations providing services for aging adults, including adult day centers, assisted living, home care and nursing homes."Right now, diflucan online in canada most care is paid for by family members who deplete their savings, or older adults themselves, they deplete their savings, become impoverished, and go on Medicaid." A public financing system, like one proposed by Suozzi could "help people pay for the services they need in the setting that makes sense for them," she said. With the focus on expanding access to Medicaid coverage of HCBS, some worry nursing homes will be left out of the picture. Some people will just not be able to live at home, diflucan online in canada even with additional help, and nursing homes need help to modernize and better care for patients, experts say.

    Low-Medicaid reimbursement rates have resulted in a chronic underfunded of nursing homes, leading to low pay for workers and high staff turnover, which leads to poor patient outcomes. A program set up by the Trump administration rewarded nursing homes that met certain quality metrics during the diflucan online in canada diflucan. They've also received funding from the HHS Provider Relief Fund.But Congress doesn't appear to be seriously considering additional investments for nursing homes.

    Biden's proposed diflucan online in canada infrastructure plan didn't mention them at all. AARP, LeadingAge and the for-profit nursing home industry have all called on Congress to appropriate more money for improvements. "We would argue that, yes, we do need money for home and community services, we do need money for affordable housing, and technology support, which are all diflucan online in canada in the President's proposal.

    But not at the exclusion of nursing homes. We need all of those services."CMS on Friday significantly diflucan online in canada changed how Affordable Care Act exchanges will run next year, intending to lower out-of-pocket costs for Obamacare customers, streamline enrollees' user experience and update how insurers are paid for the risks they take on their members. In its second update to the annual benefit and payment parameters rule, the agency announced consumers' maximum out-of-pocket costs will be limited to $8,700 for individuals and $17,400 for plans that cover multiple people.

    The update is diflucan online in canada $400 lower than previous caps, CMS said. Officials said they curbed cost-sharing parameters by citing the National Health Expenditure Accounts' projections of per-enrollee, employer-sponsored insurance premiums. CMS said diflucan online in canada this was the measure used for benefit years 2015 through 2019.

    "Families deserve to have access to healthcare coverage that doesn't break the bank. That's why today we're acting to lower consumers' maximum out-of-pocket costs by $400 and why President Biden has a plan to reduce families' healthcare costs for the long run," HHS Secretary Xavier Becerra said in diflucan online in canada a statement.CMS said it was also finalizing a few provisions aimed at helping consumers gain coverage. During this special enrollment period, CMS said 80,000 individuals have already enrolled in plans.

    By allowing enrollees to change marketplace plans if they don't receive advance payment diflucan online in canada on premium tax credits. Allowing those age 30 and over to apply for catastrophic coverage. Enabling beneficiaries diflucan online in canada who aren't notified of triggering life events to enroll in plans 60 days after they learn about their eligibility.

    And permitting COBRA beneficiaries to sign up for marketplace coverage if the employer or government contributions to their plan end, the agency aims to slow the growth in healthcare costs and cut the uninsured rate. "The ACA and the American Rescue Plan offer a lifeline to coverage for millions who might otherwise be uninsured," diflucan online in canada CMS Acting Deputy Administrator Jeff Wu said in a statement. "Those groundbreaking legislative actions are lowering health insurance premiums for millions of Americans, and the regulatory steps we're taking today build upon those actions.

    They will ensure that next year, Americans will continue to find diflucan online in canada affordable, quality coverage through the marketplaces."The updated notice outlines a few measured officials to improve transparency within CMS and HHS operations and across the healthcare industry. By surveying and posting annual reports on individuals' experience with the exchange, the CMS hopes to smooth users' experience enrolling in coverage. Additionally, the agency is also clarifying its procedure for auditing insurers' advance premium tax credit, diflucan online in canada cost-sharing reductions and user fee programs.

    It now has the authority to penalize payers who violate these standards, regardless of whether they're on state or HHS-operated exchanges. Officials will also require direct enrollment entities, like brokers, to display and market qualified health plans, individual benefit products and coverage plans that meet ACA rules on their websites, in most circumstances diflucan online in canada. Pharmacy benefit managers will be required to tell HHS how much they paid for drugs.

    The CMS also moved to continue diflucan online in canada price-adjustment for hepatitis C drugs. The updated notice also outlines a few parameters and requirements insurers need to design plans and set rates for 2022. Among insurer provisions enacted, CMS diflucan online in canada mandated that payers report the lower, adjusted plan premiums billed to enrollees who receive temporary premium credits.

    Officials have also updated HHS' schedule for collecting risk-adjustment data validation, or RADV, payments to the same year that RADV results are released. Finally, CMS will allow insurers to use the three most recent consecutive years of enrollee data for calculating their risk-adjusted diflucan online in canada model recalibration. HHS also set a deadline for states to submit their essential health benefits benchmark plan selections for 2024 and finalized the term for states to submit their 2022 annual reports on required benefits.

    The HHS will not penalize states that do not submit annual reports for 2021 diflucan online in canada. Officials also approved Alabama's request to cut risk adjustment state transfers by 50% in the individual and small-group markets in 2022. The first 2022 payment notice rule was released in January, and CMS said it anticipates making additional rules to payment policies later this year..

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    CMS-359/360 (OMB diflucan and monistat control number. 0938-0267). Frequency.

    Occasionally. Affected Public. Private Sector (Business or other for-profits).

    Number of Respondents. 49 Number of Responses. 8.

    Total Annual Hours. 74. (For questions regarding this collection contact Caroline Gallaher (410)786-8705.) 2.

    Type of Information Collection Request. New collection (Request for a new OMB control number). Title of Information Collection.

    Generic Clearance for the Center for Clinical Standards and Quality IT Product and Support Teams. Use. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act is part of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) of 2009.

    As noted in the HITECH Act, CMS is responsible for defining “meaningful use” of certified electronic health record (EHR) technology and developing incentive payment programs for Medicare and Medicaid providers. CMS is continually implementing and updating information systems as legislation and requirements change. To support this initiative, CCSQ IT Product and Support Teams (CIPST) must have the capacity for engagement with users in an ongoing variety of research, discovery, and validation activities to create and refine systems that do not place an undue burden on users and instead are efficient, usable, and desirable.

    The Center for Clinical Standards and Quality (CCSQ) is responsible for administering appropriate information systems so that the public can submit healthcare-related information. While beneficiaries ultimately benefit, the primary users of (CIPST) are healthcare facility employees and contractors. They are responsible for the collection and submission of appropriate beneficiary data to CMS to receive merit-based compensation.

    The generic clearance will allow a rapid response to inform CMS initiatives using a mixture of qualitative and quantitative consumer research strategies (including formative research studies and methodological tests) to improve information systems that serve CMS audiences. CMS implements human-centered methods and activities for the improvement of policies, services, and products. As information systems and technologies are developed or improved upon, they can be tested and evaluated for end-user feedback regarding utility, usability, and desirability.

    The overall goal is to apply a human-centered engagement model to maximize the extent to which CMS CIPST product teams can gather ongoing feedback from consumers. Feedback helps engineers and designers arrive at better solutions, therefore minimizing the burden on consumers and meeting their needs and goals. The activities under this clearance involve voluntary engagement with target CIPST users to receive design and research feedback.

    Voluntary end-users from samples of self-selected customers, as well as convenience samples, with respondents selected either to cover a broad range of customers or to include specific characteristics related to certain products or services. All collection of information under this clearance is for use in both quantitative and qualitative groups collecting data related to human-computer interactions with information system development. We will use the findings to create the highest possible public benefit.

    Form Number. CMS-10706 (OMB control number. 0938-NEW).

    Individuals and Private Sector (Business or other for-profit and Not-for-profit institutions). Number of Respondents. 11,476.

    Total Annual Responses. 11,476. Total Annual Hours.

    4,957. (For policy questions regarding this collection contact Stephanie Ray at 410-786-0971). 3.

    Type of Information Collection Request. New information collection. Title of Information Collection.

    Pharmacy Benefit Manager Transparency. Use. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Pub.

    L. 111-148) and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Pub. L.

    111-152) (collectively, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA)) were signed into law in 2010. The PPACA established competitive private health insurance markets, called Marketplaces or Exchanges, which give millions of Americans and small businesses access to qualified health plans (QHPs), including stand-alone dental plans Start Printed Page 56229(SADPs)—private health and dental insurance plans that are certified as meeting certain standards. The PPACA added section 1150A of the Social Security Act, which requires pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) to report prescription benefit information to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

    PBMs are third-party administrators of prescription programs for a variety of types of health plans, including QHPs. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) files this information collection request (ICR) in connection with the prescription benefit information that PBMs must provide to HHS under section 1150A. The burden estimate for this ICR reflects the time and effort for PBMs to submit the information regarding PBMs and prescription drugs.

    Form Number. CMS-10725 (OMB control number. 0938-NEW).

    Private Sector (business or other for-profits), Number of Respondents. 40. Number of Responses.

    For questions regarding this collection contact Ken Buerger at 410-786-1190. 4. Type of Information Collection Request.

    New Collection. Title of Information Collection. Value in Opioid Use Disorder Treatment Demonstration.

    Use. Value in Opioid Use Disorder Treatment (Value in Treatment) is a 4-year demonstration program authorized under section 1866F of the Social Security Act (Act), which was added by section 6042 of the Substance Use-Disorder Prevention that Promotes Opioid Recovery and Treatment for Patients and Communities Act (SUPPORT Act). The purpose of Value in Treatment, as stated in the statute, is to “increase access of applicable beneficiaries to opioid use disorder treatment services, improve physical and mental health outcomes for such beneficiaries, and to the extent possible, reduce Medicare program expenditures.” As required by statute, Value in Treatment will be implemented no later than January 1, 2021.

    Section 1866F(c)(1)(A)(ii) specifies that individuals and entities must apply for and be selected to participate in the Value in Treatment demonstration pursuant to an application and selection process established by the Secretary. Section 1866F(c)(2)(B)(iii) specifies that in order to receive CMF and performance-based incentive payments under the Value in Treatment program, each participant shall report data necessary to. Monitor and evaluate the Value in Treatment program.

    Determine if criteria are met. And determine the performance-based incentive payment. Form Number.

    CMS-10728 (OMB control number. 0938-New). Frequency.

    Yearly. Affected Public. Individuals and Households.

    The form CMS-360 is diflucan online in canada a survey tool used by the SAs to record information in order to determine a provider's compliance with the CORF Conditions of Participation (COPs) and to report this information to the Federal government. The form includes basic information on the COP requirements, check boxes to indicate the level of compliance, and a section for recording notes. CMS has the responsibility and authority for certification decisions which are based on provider compliance with the COPs and this form supports this process. Form Number diflucan online in canada.

    CMS-359/360 (OMB control number. 0938-0267). Frequency. Occasionally.

    Affected Public. Private Sector (Business or other for-profits). Number of Respondents. 49 Number of Responses.

    8. Total Annual Hours. 74. (For questions regarding this collection contact Caroline Gallaher (410)786-8705.) 2.

    Type of Information Collection Request. New collection (Request for a new OMB control number). Title of Information Collection. Generic Clearance for the Center for Clinical Standards and Quality IT Product and Support Teams.

    Use. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act is part of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) of 2009. As noted in the HITECH Act, CMS is responsible for defining “meaningful use” of certified electronic health record (EHR) technology and developing incentive payment programs for Medicare and Medicaid providers. CMS is continually implementing and updating information systems as legislation and requirements change.

    To support this initiative, CCSQ IT Product and Support Teams (CIPST) must have the capacity for engagement with users in an ongoing variety of research, discovery, and validation activities to create and refine systems that do not place an undue burden on users and instead are efficient, usable, and desirable. The Center for Clinical Standards and Quality (CCSQ) is responsible for administering appropriate information systems so that the public can submit healthcare-related information. While beneficiaries ultimately benefit, the primary users of (CIPST) are healthcare facility employees and contractors. They are responsible for the collection and submission of appropriate beneficiary data to CMS to receive merit-based compensation.

    The generic clearance will allow a rapid response to inform CMS initiatives using a mixture of qualitative and quantitative consumer research strategies (including formative research studies and methodological tests) to improve information systems that serve CMS audiences. CMS implements human-centered methods and activities for the improvement of policies, services, and products. As information systems and technologies are developed or improved upon, they can be tested and evaluated for end-user feedback regarding utility, usability, and desirability. The overall goal is to apply a human-centered engagement model to maximize the extent to which CMS CIPST product teams can gather ongoing feedback from consumers.

    Feedback helps engineers and designers arrive at better solutions, therefore minimizing the burden on consumers and meeting their needs and goals. The activities under this clearance involve voluntary engagement with target CIPST users to receive design and research feedback. Voluntary end-users from samples of self-selected customers, as well as convenience samples, with respondents selected either to cover a broad range of customers or to include specific characteristics related to certain products or services. All collection of information under this clearance is for use in both quantitative and qualitative groups collecting data related to human-computer interactions with information system development.

    We will use the findings to create the highest possible public benefit. Form Number. CMS-10706 (OMB control number. 0938-NEW).

    Frequency. Occasionally. Affected Public. Individuals and Private Sector (Business or other for-profit and Not-for-profit institutions).

    Number of Respondents. 11,476. Total Annual Responses. 11,476.

    Total Annual Hours. 4,957. (For policy questions regarding this collection contact Stephanie Ray at 410-786-0971). 3.

    Type of Information Collection Request. New information collection. Title of Information Collection. Pharmacy Benefit Manager Transparency.

    Use. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Pub. L. 111-148) and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Pub.

    L. 111-152) (collectively, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA)) were signed into law in 2010. The PPACA established competitive private health insurance markets, called Marketplaces or Exchanges, which give millions of Americans and small businesses access to qualified health plans (QHPs), including stand-alone dental plans Start Printed Page 56229(SADPs)—private health and dental insurance plans that are certified as meeting certain standards. The PPACA added section 1150A of the Social Security Act, which requires pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) to report prescription benefit information to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

    PBMs are third-party administrators of prescription programs for a variety of types of health plans, including QHPs. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) files this information collection request (ICR) in connection with the prescription benefit information that PBMs must provide to HHS under section 1150A. The burden estimate for this ICR reflects the time and effort for PBMs to submit the information regarding PBMs and prescription drugs. Form Number.

    CMS-10725 (OMB control number. 0938-NEW). Frequency. Annually.

    Affected Public. Private Sector (business or other for-profits), Number of Respondents. 40. Number of Responses.

    275. Total Annual Hours. 1,400. For questions regarding this collection contact Ken Buerger at 410-786-1190.

    4. Type of Information Collection Request. New Collection. Title of Information Collection.

    Value in Opioid Use Disorder Treatment Demonstration. Use. Value in Opioid Use Disorder Treatment (Value in Treatment) is a 4-year demonstration program authorized under section 1866F of the Social Security Act (Act), which was added by section 6042 of the Substance Use-Disorder Prevention that Promotes Opioid Recovery and Treatment for Patients and Communities Act (SUPPORT Act). The purpose of Value in Treatment, as stated in the statute, is to “increase access of applicable beneficiaries to opioid use disorder treatment services, improve physical and mental health outcomes for such beneficiaries, and to the extent possible, reduce Medicare program expenditures.” As required by statute, Value in Treatment will be implemented no later than January 1, 2021.

    Section 1866F(c)(1)(A)(ii) specifies that individuals and entities must apply for and be selected to participate in the Value in Treatment demonstration pursuant to an application and selection process established by the Secretary. Section 1866F(c)(2)(B)(iii) specifies that in order to receive CMF and performance-based incentive payments under the Value in Treatment program, each participant shall report data necessary to. Monitor and evaluate the Value in Treatment program. Determine if criteria are met.

    And determine the performance-based incentive payment. Form Number. CMS-10728 (OMB control number. 0938-New).

    What side effects may I notice from Diflucan?

    Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:

    • allergic reactions like skin rash or itching, hives, swelling of the lips, mouth, tongue, or throat
    • dark urine
    • feeling dizzy or faint
    • irregular heartbeat or chest pain
    • redness, blistering, peeling or loosening of the skin, including inside the mouth
    • trouble breathing
    • unusual bruising or bleeding
    • vomiting
    • yellowing of the eyes or skin

    Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):

    • changes in how food tastes
    • diarrhea
    • headache
    • stomach upset or nausea

    This list may not describe all possible side effects.

    Can diflucan be bought over the counter

    By Amy Norton HealthDay ReporterTUESDAY, can you buy diflucan over the counter at walmart Oct can diflucan be bought over the counter. 5, 2021 (HealthDay News) -- Black Americans have been persistently hard-hit with heart disease risk factors for the past 20 years — and social issues like unemployment and low income account for a good deal of it, a new study finds.Cardiovascular disease, which includes heart disease and stroke, is the No. 1 killer of Americans, and it's well-known that it exacts a disproportionate toll on Black Americans.The new study can diflucan be bought over the counter — published Oct. 5 in the Journal of the American Medical Association — focused on risk factors for heart and blood vessel disease, such as high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity. And Black Americans carried a heavier burden of those conditions than white, Asian and Hispanic folks, the study authors said.But the findings also highlight a key reason can diflucan be bought over the counter why."A lot of the difference may be explained by social determinants of health," said lead researcher Dr.

    Jiang He, of Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, in New Orleans. That term refers to the wider context of people's lives and its impact on their health. A healthy diet and exercise might do a heart good, for instance, but it's easier said than done if you have to work two jobs to pay the rent.In their study, He and his colleagues were able to account can diflucan be bought over the counter for some of those social determinants. People's educational attainment, income, whether they owned a home, and whether they had health insurance and a regular health care provider.It turned out those factors went a long way in explaining why Black Americans faced particularly high heart disease risks.The study is not the first to trace the nation's health disparities to social factors, including structural racism — the ways in which society is set up to give advantages to one race over others.Dr. Keith Churchwell can diflucan be bought over the counter was the lead author of a recent statement from the American Heart Association (AHA) on the subject.In it, the AHA said structural racism needs to be recognized as a "fundamental cause of persistent health disparities in the United States." Churchwell said the new findings are in line with past evidence, the kind that drove the AHA statement.Racial disparities in health start with things as fundamental as educational opportunities, nutrition, stable housing and transportation, according to Churchwell, who is also president of Yale New Haven Hospital in Connecticut."I think we're all coming to the realization that if we're going to improve the health of our communities, these social determinants have to be addressed," said Churchwell, who was not involved in the new study.

    "They have a bigger impact than the medications we give and the procedures we do."For the study, He's team used data from a long-running federal health survey.The investigators found that between 1999 and 2018, Americans saw an increase in certain risk factors for heart disease and stroke. The prevalence of obesity soared from 30% to 42%, while can diflucan be bought over the counter the rate of diabetes rose from 8% to almost 13%.Meanwhile, average blood pressure levels held fairly steady, while blood sugar levels rose. The picture differed by race and ethnicity, however, and Black Americans were consistently worse off than white, Asian and Hispanic Americans.And by 2018, Black adults had, on average, an 8% chance of developing heart disease or stroke in the next 10 years (based on their risk factors). That compared with a roughly 6% chance among white Americans, the investigators found.Then He's team weighed the social factors that they could. And those issues appeared can diflucan be bought over the counter to explain a large amount of the difference between Black and white Americans' cardiovascular risks.Still, He said, the survey did not capture other, more nuanced factors.

    For example, can people afford healthy food?. Do they have safe places can diflucan be bought over the counter for exercise?. Even asking people about "access" to health care fails to tell the whole story, He noted. The quality of that care — including whether providers and patients are communicating well with each other — is critical."If we want to improve population health," He said, "we need to pay attention to these social determinants."According to Churchwell, health care systems can help tackle broader issues in various ways, including partnering with community organizations and evaluating themselves — with the help of electronic medical records — to ensure they are providing equitable care. It is not enough to simply tell patients to eat better and exercise, Churchwell said.From the patient side, he encouraged people to ask about resources in their community, for help with anything from exercise to mental health support."Say to your provider, 'Help me figure this out,'" Churchwell said.More informationThe American Heart can diflucan be bought over the counter Association has more on structural racism and health disparities.SOURCES.

    Jiang He, MD, PhD, chair and professor, epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans. Keith Churchwell, MD, can diflucan be bought over the counter president, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Conn.. Journal of the American Medical Association, Oct. 5, 2021Changing Lives, One Limb at a Time A chance meeting at the can diflucan be bought over the counter 2013 Colorado State Science Fair would change the path of LaChappelle's career. A little girl came up to him, curious about his invention.

    She was wearing a prosthetic on her right arm that was little more than a claw. He watched how she moved and can diflucan be bought over the counter opened it. "It was extremely eye-opening for me," LaChappelle says. He learned can diflucan be bought over the counter from the girl's parents that the prosthetic arm cost $80,000. Despite the steep price tag, the limb was bulky, uncomfortable, and not very useful.

    What's more, the girl would soon outgrow the limb and need a new one. "I couldn't accept that," can diflucan be bought over the counter he says, adding that he knew he could build a cheaper and more user-friendly arm. "That was the moment I dedicated my life to making better prosthetic technology," he says. In 2014, can diflucan be bought over the counter at age 18, LaChappelle started his own company called Unlimited Tomorrow, with financial backing from life coach Tony Robbins. Life-Changing Technology In the first few years of the company's existence, LaChappelle had to work out the technology needed to create custom limbs for a fraction of the price of existing ones.

    The model he eventually can diflucan be bought over the counter developed lets users scan their limbs using a 3D scanner in their home, rather than having to get fitted in person. Then the company prints, assembles, and tests the limb. Finally, it's shipped to the user. By streamlining the production process, LaChappelle can diflucan be bought over the counter brought the cost of his prosthetic limb, called TrueLimb, down to $8,000. His first customer was a little girl named Momo, who was missing part of her right arm and hand.

    In 2017, met in Seattle, where the can diflucan be bought over the counter inventor helped to fit Momo with her new prosthetic arm. TrueLimb looks and feels like a human arm, right down to the fingernails (which can be polished). It's controlled by the user's muscles, just like a real limb. Whenever someone is fitted for a TrueLimb, they go through a process of muscle training, where sensors in the can diflucan be bought over the counter prosthetic's socket learn to detect their muscles.“At the start of the diflucan, many providers and insurers removed copays for visits because they wanted to encourage telehealth,” says Ellimoottil. €œNow we have copays coming back from big insurers.

    Ultimately, we don’t know yet what the net effect will be for patients, providers, or payers.” If telehealth leads to an increase in appointments, for instance, costs can diflucan be bought over the counter could go up. According to Ellimoottil’s research, the rate of secondary visits within 7 days is around 10% with an in-person visit. With telemedicine, the rate of can diflucan be bought over the counter follow-ups goes up slightly, potentially adding costs. But, says Ellimoottil, it’s just as likely that costs could go down. €œIf the patient doesn’t have to pay for transportation costs, click for source parking, or take time off work to see a doctor, it could cost less than an in-patient visit,” he says.

    €œBut the question remains as to how appointments should can diflucan be bought over the counter be billed with telehealth.” To understand telehealth billing, Ellimoottil says you should understand the things used in billing for in-person care. €œThe same considerations apply,” he says. These include can diflucan be bought over the counter. The time involved in an appointment. €œAs the can diflucan be bought over the counter time goes up, the billing does, too,” he explains.

    €œThis has always been the case, even with in-person visits.” The complexity of the appointment. €œThe formal term here is ‘medical decision making,’” Ellimoottil says. The amount can diflucan be bought over the counter of data reviewed. €œIf a doctor is looking at an X-ray report versus the actual image, it’s less costly,” he says. €œOr if they have to prescribe a medicine versus sending the patient home with Tylenol, the cost goes up.” In Heal’s case, then, the $80 telehealth bill might have been due to the complexity of reading his CT scans and determining a next can diflucan be bought over the counter course of action, which the doctor then needed to explain to the patient.

    €œWhen I asked about the cost, they told me that the doctor spent 35 minutes preparing for the appointment, so it was billed as a full visit,” Heal says. This goes back to the billing formula. €œSometimes the appointment itself is short, but because a patient had can diflucan be bought over the counter an acute issue that required tests or a prescription for antibiotics, the billing level is higher,” Ellimoottil explains. But like Heal, many patients have a hard time appreciating how the cost of telehealth might compare to an in-person visit. Is the quality can diflucan be bought over the counter of care equivalent?.

    In some cases, yes, but many patients question that, and thus the associated billing.By Cara Murez HealthDay ReporterTUESDAY, Oct. 5, 2021 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of Americans have high blood pressure and only 24% have it under control, but what's the best way can diflucan be bought over the counter to treat it -- one high-dose pill or two at a lower dose?. A large new study suggests that two medications may be better than one for many older patients. Lowering elevated blood pressure to a sustainable level is important because it reduces a patient's risk of heart attack, stroke and kidney failure."In geriatrics, we typically try to limit the number of medications," said study author Dr. Lillian Min, associate professor of geriatric can diflucan be bought over the counter and palliative medicine at the University of Michigan.

    "The traditional method of practicing medicine is to start low, go slow, is the mantra."That means that doctors typically prescribe one blood pressure medicine at a low dose and increase its strength as needed, to the maximum beneficial level. If blood pressure remains can diflucan be bought over the counter stubbornly high, they start a second medication. But guidelines issued in the past decade recommend starting multiple doses of medicines. So patients might take two medications in one combo pill or separately in two pills, Min said. The aim is to lessen the risk of a side effect while offering the benefits of both medications."So now the question can diflucan be bought over the counter becomes.

    If we're going to go up on the medicine, should we exhaust one before starting another or should we now implement that new advice?. " she said.It depends on the patient, according to a new study of more than can diflucan be bought over the counter 178,000 seniors treated through the U.S. Veterans Health Administration.Researchers noted that high blood pressure is one of the most common chronic conditions affecting older patients. And the older people get, the more chronic conditions they are likely to can diflucan be bought over the counter have and the more medications they are likely to take.The new study included patients taking at least one blood pressure medicine but not at its maximum dose. About a quarter had been given an added blood pressure medication, while 75% had received higher doses of existing ones.

    Both treatments reduced their blood pressure, the study found, but one reduced it more.While taking just one medication was more likely to be something patients would continue, smaller doses of more meds led to slightly larger reductions in blood pressure, the study found.Researchers found that when doctors intensified patients' treatment on one drug, 65% were still taking it months later compared to 50% of those whose doctors had added medications instead."Where this is the most clinically applicable would be to think about clinically complex patients who have a lot of medicines already, and to start considering more of the nuances of their preferences," Min said. "What makes sense in terms of discussing the blood pressure goals between the physician or provider can diflucan be bought over the counter and the patient based on what's going on in the big picture?. Is it more important to have a more manageable regimen or is it more important to get to the goal just a little bit faster?. " The findings were published can diflucan be bought over the counter Oct. 4 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.Dan Lackland, a professor of epidemiology at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston, reviewed the findings.He said the advantage to receiving low doses of more than one medication is that the side effects tend to be lower with these smaller doses.On the other hand, some patients don't want to take more than one pill or have a harder time accepting multiple pills because they feel it indicates their condition might be worse -- even if it's not, he said."What the paper was saying is.

    Take a good look at it. We need can diflucan be bought over the counter to do more studies … to really kind of compare those," Lackland said. "One pill with a higher dose, two pills with a lower dose. And also looking very strongly at the individual patient can diflucan be bought over the counter. Is the patient going to take two pills?.

    Are they going can diflucan be bought over the counter to be reluctant?. "He said future research could consider what strategies would help patients be more comfortable taking more than one pill, helping them comply with that regimen and explaining the reasons for it. "This is important and I think it, again, emphasizes the importance of taking your blood pressure medication and getting that blood pressure down," Lackland said. "And as you get the blood pressure down, you are indeed reducing your risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke, which is where we want to be."More informationThe American Heart Association has can diflucan be bought over the counter more on high blood pressure.SOURCES. Lillian Min, MD, MSHS, associate professor, geriatric and palliative medicine, University of Michigan Geriatrics, Ann Arbor.

    Daniel Lackland, DrPh, can diflucan be bought over the counter professor, epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston. Annals of Internal Medicine, Oct. 4, 2021.

    By Amy diflucan online in canada buy diflucan no prescription Norton HealthDay ReporterTUESDAY, Oct. 5, 2021 (HealthDay News) -- Black Americans have been persistently hard-hit with heart disease risk factors for the past 20 years — and social issues like unemployment and low income account for a good deal of it, a new study finds.Cardiovascular disease, which includes heart disease and stroke, is the No. 1 killer of Americans, and it's well-known that it exacts a disproportionate toll diflucan online in canada on Black Americans.The new study — published Oct. 5 in the Journal of the American Medical Association — focused on risk factors for heart and blood vessel disease, such as high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity.

    And Black Americans carried a heavier burden of those conditions than white, Asian and Hispanic folks, diflucan online in canada the study authors said.But the findings also highlight a key reason why."A lot of the difference may be explained by social determinants of health," said lead researcher Dr. Jiang He, of Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, in New Orleans. That term refers to the wider context of people's lives and its impact on their health. A healthy diet and exercise might do a heart good, for instance, but it's easier said than done if you have to work two jobs to pay the rent.In their study, He and his colleagues were able to account for some of those social diflucan online in canada determinants.

    People's educational attainment, income, whether they owned a home, and whether they had health insurance and a regular health care provider.It turned out those factors went a long way in explaining why Black Americans faced particularly high heart disease risks.The study is not the first to trace the nation's health disparities to social factors, including structural racism — the ways in which society is set up to give advantages to one race over others.Dr. Keith Churchwell was the lead author of a recent statement from the diflucan online in canada American Heart Association (AHA) on the subject.In it, the AHA said structural racism needs to be recognized as a "fundamental cause of persistent health disparities in the United States." Churchwell said the new findings are in line with past evidence, the kind that drove the AHA statement.Racial disparities in health start with things as fundamental as educational opportunities, nutrition, stable housing and transportation, according to Churchwell, who is also president of Yale New Haven Hospital in Connecticut."I think we're all coming to the realization that if we're going to improve the health of our communities, these social determinants have to be addressed," said Churchwell, who was not involved in the new study. "They have a bigger impact than the medications we give and the procedures we do."For the study, He's team used data from a long-running federal health survey.The investigators found that between 1999 and 2018, Americans saw an increase in certain risk factors for heart disease and stroke. The prevalence of obesity soared from 30% to 42%, while the rate of diabetes rose from 8% to almost 13%.Meanwhile, average blood pressure levels held diflucan online in canada fairly steady, while blood sugar levels rose.

    The picture differed by race and ethnicity, however, and Black Americans were consistently worse off than white, Asian and Hispanic Americans.And by 2018, Black adults had, on average, an 8% chance of developing heart disease or stroke in the next 10 years (based on their risk factors). That compared with a roughly 6% chance among white Americans, the investigators found.Then He's team weighed the social factors that they could. And those issues appeared to explain a large amount of the difference between Black and white Americans' cardiovascular risks.Still, He said, the survey did not capture other, diflucan online in canada more nuanced factors. For example, can people afford healthy food?.

    Do they have safe places for diflucan online in canada exercise?. Even asking people about "access" to health care fails to tell the whole story, He noted. The quality of that care — including whether providers and patients are communicating well with each other — is critical."If we want to improve population health," He said, "we need to pay attention to these social determinants."According to Churchwell, health care systems can help tackle broader issues in various ways, including partnering with community organizations and evaluating themselves — with the help of electronic medical records — to ensure they are providing equitable care. It is not enough to simply tell patients to eat better and exercise, Churchwell said.From the patient side, he encouraged people diflucan online in canada to ask about resources in their community, for help with anything from exercise to mental health support."Say to your provider, 'Help me figure this out,'" Churchwell said.More informationThe American Heart Association has more on structural racism and health disparities.SOURCES.

    Jiang He, MD, PhD, chair and professor, epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans. Keith Churchwell, MD, president, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, diflucan online in canada Conn.. Journal of the American Medical Association, Oct. 5, 2021Changing diflucan online in canada Lives, One Limb at a Time A chance meeting at the 2013 Colorado State Science Fair would change the path of LaChappelle's career.

    A little girl came up to him, curious about his invention. She was wearing a prosthetic on her right arm that was little more than a claw. He watched diflucan online in canada how she moved and opened it. "It was extremely eye-opening for me," LaChappelle says.

    He learned from the girl's parents that the prosthetic arm cost diflucan online in canada $80,000. Despite the steep price tag, the limb was bulky, uncomfortable, and not very useful. What's more, the girl would soon outgrow the limb and need a new one. "I couldn't diflucan online in canada accept that," he says, adding that he knew he could build a cheaper and more user-friendly arm.

    "That was the moment I dedicated my life to making better prosthetic technology," he says. In 2014, at age 18, LaChappelle started his own company called Unlimited Tomorrow, with financial backing diflucan online in canada from life coach Tony Robbins. Life-Changing Technology In the first few years of the company's existence, LaChappelle had to work out the technology needed to create custom limbs for a fraction of the price of existing ones. The model he eventually developed lets users scan their diflucan online in canada limbs using a 3D scanner in their home, rather than having to get fitted in person.

    Then the company prints, assembles, and tests the limb. Finally, it's shipped to the user. By streamlining the production process, LaChappelle brought the cost of diflucan online in canada his prosthetic limb, called TrueLimb, down to $8,000. His first customer was a little girl named Momo, who was missing part of her right arm and hand.

    In 2017, met in Seattle, where the inventor helped to fit Momo diflucan online in canada with her new prosthetic arm. TrueLimb looks and feels like a human arm, right down to the fingernails (which can be polished). It's controlled by the user's muscles, just like a real limb. Whenever someone is fitted for a TrueLimb, they go through a process of muscle training, where sensors in the prosthetic's socket learn diflucan online in canada to detect their muscles.“At the start of the diflucan, many providers and insurers removed copays for visits because they wanted to encourage telehealth,” says Ellimoottil.

    €œNow we have copays coming back from big insurers. Ultimately, we don’t know yet what the net effect will be for patients, providers, or payers.” If telehealth leads to an increase in appointments, for instance, costs diflucan online in canada could go up. According to Ellimoottil’s research, the rate of secondary visits within 7 days is around 10% with an in-person visit. With telemedicine, the rate of diflucan online in canada follow-ups goes up slightly, potentially adding costs.

    But, says Ellimoottil, it’s just as likely that costs could go down. €œIf the patient doesn’t have to pay for transportation costs, parking, or take time off work to see a doctor, it could cost less than an in-patient visit,” he says. €œBut the question remains as to how appointments should be billed with telehealth.” To understand telehealth billing, diflucan online in canada Ellimoottil says you should understand the things used in billing for in-person care. €œThe same considerations apply,” he says.

    These include diflucan online in canada. The time involved in an appointment. €œAs the time goes diflucan online in canada up, the billing does, too,” he explains. €œThis has always been the case, even with in-person visits.” The complexity of the appointment.

    €œThe formal term here is ‘medical decision making,’” Ellimoottil says. The amount diflucan online in canada of data reviewed. €œIf a doctor is looking at an X-ray report versus the actual image, it’s less costly,” he says. €œOr if they have to prescribe a medicine versus sending the patient home with Tylenol, the cost goes up.” In Heal’s case, then, the $80 telehealth bill might have been due to the complexity of reading his CT scans and diflucan online in canada determining a next course of action, which the doctor then needed to explain to the patient.

    €œWhen I asked about the cost, they told me that the doctor spent 35 minutes preparing for the appointment, so it was billed as a full visit,” Heal says. This goes back to the billing formula. €œSometimes the diflucan online in canada appointment itself is short, but because a patient had an acute issue that required tests or a prescription for antibiotics, the billing level is higher,” Ellimoottil explains. But like Heal, many patients have a hard time appreciating how the cost of telehealth might compare to an in-person visit.

    Is the quality of care diflucan online in canada equivalent?. In some cases, yes, but many patients question that, and thus the associated billing.By Cara Murez HealthDay ReporterTUESDAY, Oct. 5, 2021 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly half of Americans have high blood pressure and only 24% have it under control, but what's the best diflucan online in canada way to treat it -- one high-dose pill or two at a lower dose?. A large new study suggests that two medications may be better than one for many older patients.

    Lowering elevated blood pressure to a sustainable level is important because it reduces a patient's risk of heart attack, stroke and kidney failure."In geriatrics, we typically try to limit the number of medications," said study author Dr. Lillian Min, associate professor diflucan online in canada of geriatric and palliative medicine at the University of Michigan. "The traditional method of practicing medicine is to start low, go slow, is the mantra."That means that doctors typically prescribe one blood pressure medicine at a low dose and increase its strength as needed, to the maximum beneficial level. If blood pressure remains stubbornly high, diflucan online in canada they start a second medication.

    But guidelines issued in the past decade recommend starting multiple doses of medicines. So patients might take two medications in one combo pill or separately in two pills, Min said. The aim is to lessen the risk of a side effect while offering the benefits diflucan online in canada of both medications."So now the question becomes. If we're going to go up on the medicine, should we exhaust one before starting another or should we now implement that new advice?.

    " she said.It depends on the patient, according to a diflucan online in canada new study of more than 178,000 seniors treated through the U.S. Veterans Health Administration.Researchers noted that high blood pressure is one of the most common chronic conditions affecting older patients. And the older people get, the more chronic conditions diflucan online in canada they are likely to have and the more medications they are likely to take.The new study included patients taking at least one blood pressure medicine but not at its maximum dose. About a quarter had been given an added blood pressure medication, while 75% had received higher doses of existing ones.

    Both treatments reduced their blood pressure, the study found, but one reduced it more.While taking just one medication was more likely to be something patients would continue, smaller doses of more meds led to slightly larger reductions in blood pressure, the study found.Researchers found that when doctors intensified patients' treatment on one drug, 65% were still taking it months later compared to 50% of those whose doctors had added medications instead."Where this is the most clinically applicable would be to think about clinically complex patients who have a lot of medicines already, and to start considering more of the nuances of their preferences," Min said. "What makes sense in terms of discussing the blood pressure goals between the physician or provider and the patient based on what's going on diflucan online in canada in the big picture?. Is it more important to have a more manageable regimen or is it more important to get to the goal just a little bit faster?. " The findings diflucan online in canada were published Oct.

    4 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.Dan Lackland, a professor of epidemiology at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston, reviewed the findings.He said the advantage to receiving low doses of more than one medication is that the side effects tend to be lower with these smaller doses.On the other hand, some patients don't want to take more than one pill or have a harder time accepting multiple pills because they feel it indicates their condition might be worse -- even if it's not, he said."What the paper was saying is. Take a good look at it. We need to do more studies … to really kind of compare those," Lackland diflucan online in canada said. "One pill with a higher dose, two pills with a lower dose.

    And also looking diflucan online in canada very strongly at the individual patient. Is the patient going to take two pills?. Are they going diflucan online in canada to be reluctant?. "He said future research could consider what strategies would help patients be more comfortable taking more than one pill, helping them comply with that regimen and explaining the reasons for it.

    "This is important and I think it, again, emphasizes the importance of taking your blood pressure medication and getting that blood pressure down," Lackland said. "And as you get the blood pressure down, you are indeed reducing your diflucan online in canada risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke, which is where we want to be."More informationThe American Heart Association has more on high blood pressure.SOURCES. Lillian Min, MD, MSHS, associate professor, geriatric and palliative medicine, University of Michigan Geriatrics, Ann Arbor. Daniel Lackland, DrPh, professor, epidemiology, Medical University of South diflucan online in canada Carolina, Charleston.

    Diflucan lyme

    In a withering ruling, a Canadian appeals court overturned a controversial diflucan lyme decision issued four years ago by a government agency that ordered Alexion Pharmaceuticals to lower the price of a rare disease medicine and reimburse the government for “excessive” pricing.The ruling follows a long-running struggle that began after https://actio-rae.de/what-i-should-buy-with-viagra/ the drug maker six years ago refused to lower its price for Soliris, which, depending upon the disease, costs approximately $400,000 to $560,000 per patient. The Patented Medicine Prices Review Board, which demanded a lower price, also ordered the company to repay sales generated by the drug from 2012 through the first half of 2014. Unlock this article by subscribing to STAT+ and enjoy your first 30 days free!. GET STARTED Log In | Learn More What is it?.

    STAT+ is STAT's premium subscription service for in-depth biotech, pharma, policy, and life science coverage and analysis. Our award-winning team covers news on Wall Street, policy developments in Washington, early science breakthroughs and clinical trial results, and health care disruption in Silicon Valley and beyond. What's included?.

    In a withering ruling, a Canadian appeals court overturned a controversial decision issued four years ago by a government agency that ordered diflucan online in canada Alexion Pharmaceuticals to lower the price of a rare disease medicine and reimburse the government for “excessive” pricing.The ruling follows a more info here long-running struggle that began after the drug maker six years ago refused to lower its price for Soliris, which, depending upon the disease, costs approximately $400,000 to $560,000 per patient. The Patented Medicine Prices Review Board, which demanded a lower price, also ordered the company to repay sales generated by the drug from 2012 through the first half of 2014. Unlock this article by subscribing to STAT+ and enjoy your first 30 days free!. GET STARTED Log In | Learn More What is diflucan online in canada it?.

    STAT+ is STAT's premium subscription service for in-depth biotech, pharma, policy, and life science coverage and analysis. Our award-winning team covers news on Wall Street, policy developments in Washington, early science breakthroughs and clinical trial results, and health care disruption in Silicon Valley and beyond. What's included?.

    How long does it take for diflucan to start working

    Sex differences how long does it take for diflucan to start working in clinical management and outcomes of patients with cardiovascular disease sometimes are due to healthcare inequities (which should be eliminated) but also might be due to sex-related differences in aetiology and pathophysiology. For example, how long does it take for diflucan to start working the optimal medical dose for management of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) may be lower in women compared with men. In a study of 561 women and 615 men with a new diagnosis of either HRrEF or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), Bots and colleagues1 found that although 79% of women and 86% of men with HFrEF were prescribed an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), the average dose was only about 50% of the recommended target dose for both sexes. A lower ACEI/ARB dose was associated how long does it take for diflucan to start working with higher survival outcomes in women, but not men, with HFrEF.

    In patients of both sexes with HFpEF, there was no relationship between medication dose and survival (figure 1).Central figure summarising the design and main findings of this study." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Central figure summarising the design and main findings of this study.In the accompanying editorial, Hassan and Ahmed 2 comment that. €˜Sex differences in HF outcomes may be further exacerbated by differences in medication pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, with female-specific physiological how long does it take for diflucan to start working factors including lower body mass, as well as decreased renal excretion and gastrointestinal enzymatic activity, leading to higher medication bioavailability. As a result, the administration of sex-neutral medication doses leads to greater drug exposure in female patients, which may subsequently lead to a higher incidence of adverse drug reactions. This raises the possibility of sex-based HF treatments to how long does it take for diflucan to start working improve clinical outcomes.

    However, current guidelines adopt a ‘one size fits all’ approach, with an emphasis on target-dosed therapy. In this era of precision medicine, is it time to how long does it take for diflucan to start working redefine optimal HF therapy based on the sex of the patient?. €™On the other hand, adverse outcomes in women with infective endocarditis likely are related to bias and healthcare inequities. In a multicentric Spanish cohort of 3541 patients3 diagnosed with endocarditis between 2008 and 2018, women underwent surgical intervention less often than men (38.3% vs 50%) despite the increasing recognition that how long does it take for diflucan to start working earlier surgical intervention often is beneficial as recommended in current guidelines (figure 2).

    The lower likelihood of surgery in women persisted after propensity matching for how long does it take for diflucan to start working age and surgical risk (OR 0.74. 95% CI 0.59 to 0.91. P=0.05). In addition, women had a higher in-hospital mortality compared with men, even after adjusting for possible confounders (OR 1.41.

    95% CI 1.21 to 1.65. P<0.001).Stratification of the GAMES (‘Grupo de Apoyo al Manejo de la Endocarditis Infecciosa en España’ or ‘Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis’) cohort according to surgical recommendation between sexes. Overall and stratified mortality is displayed in each group." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Stratification of the GAMES (‘Grupo de Apoyo al Manejo de la Endocarditis Infecciosa en España’ or ‘Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis’) cohort according to surgical recommendation between sexes. Overall and stratified mortality is displayed in each group.Van Spall, Jaffer and Mamas4 remind us of the many factors to be considered in the decision to recommend surgical intervention in a patient with endocarditis (figure 3).

    However, as they conclude. €˜Disparities in referral and receipt of surgical intervention, along with differences in aetiology, microbiology and comorbidities, may be responsible for the higher risk of mortality in women than in men with IE. Ultimately, awareness of these issues should prompt a self-evaluation of biases on the part of clinicians such that objective, timely surgical referrals are made and interventions are offered regardless of demographic group. While the biology is not modifiable, the biases and care disparities are.’Factors associated with infective endocarditis outcomes." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 3 Factors associated with infective endocarditis outcomes.Another interesting paper in this issue is the study by Sung and colleagues5 showing a positive, graded association between higher levels of physical activity and a higher prevalence, with more rapid progression, of coronary artery calcification (CAC).

    These findings were based on a cohort of 25 485 Korean men and women with a median interval between CAC measurements of 3 years. In discussing these seeming paradoxical findings, Gulsin and Moss6 point out that although CAC is a surrogate marker for calcified atherosclerosis and is associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction, treatment with a statin also accelerates deposition of calcified plaque, similar to the effects of physical activity in the current study. They also remind us that. (1) the severity of CAC at baseline is a key predictor of progression rates, (2) an increase in CAC score is not the same an accelerated rate of total atherosclerotic plaque progression, and (3) the risk of plaque rupture and clinical events is greatest within the necrotic core of noncalcified plaques.

    Thus, it is possible that an increase in CAC scores reflects a protective response and a transition to a more stable plaque morphology rather than more extensive atherosclerosis. They conclude. €˜Sung and colleagues5 have produced a timely manuscript that highlights the complexity of interpreting coronary artery calcium scores in patients who have implemented recommendations on physical activity or commenced on statin therapy. While proponents would argue that it is an effective tool to screen for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals, clinicians should be cautious regarding the overuse of this test in otherwise healthy individuals.

    The coronary artery calcium paradox should not result in paradoxical care for our patients.’The Education in Heart article7 in this issue provides an overview for clinicians to detect and manage mental issues in their patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a reciprocal relationship between mental disorders and CVD. Patients with mental disorders have a 1.5- to 3.0-fold higher risk of developing CVD and, conversely, the onset of CVD increases the risk of a developing a mental disorder by 2.2-fold.The Cardiology in-Focus topic in this issue is a step-by-step guide to writing a Image Challenge question, authored by our Image Challenge Editor.8 We encourage both cardiology trainees and clinicians to submit Image Challenge questions to Heart, using this basic guide, because this type of question accelerates learning for both the author and the reader (table 1).View this table:Table 1 Key components of an image challenge questionEthics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot applicable.Reducing the risk of plaque rupture events in individuals without a prior myocardial infarction is an imprecise science. To help clarify whether there is evidence of coronary artery disease and avoid ‘medicalisation’ of otherwise healthy individuals, international guidelines recommend incorporating the measurement of coronary artery calcium alongside risk prediction models.1 Coronary artery calcium serves as a surrogate marker of advanced calcified atherosclerosis and can be calculated from a non-contrast ECG-gated CT scan where a score of 1–99 Agatston units represents subclinical atherosclerosis, and a score of 100 or more Agatston units is considered an appropriate threshold for initiating medical therapy.1 At ≥100 Agatston units, the burden of advanced calcified atherosclerosis justifies statin implementation and this has been validated in a real-world cohort study of 16 996 subjects with a 10-year number needed to treat to prevent one cardiovascular event of 12.2 Many clinicians have advocated the benefits of coronary artery calcium in redefining the cardiovascular risk assessment of healthy individuals, as there is a strong link between high burdens of coronary artery calcium, accelerated progression of calcified plaque and the risk of future myocardial infarction.

    However, if the burden of calcified plaque is an accurate barometer of cardiovascular risk, one would expect an intervention which reduces an individual’s cardiovascular risk to attenuate progression of calcified plaque. And herein lies the coronary artery calcium paradox. Both invasive and non-invasive imaging studies have consistently demonstrated that high-intensity statin therapy, an established modifier of cardiovascular risk, accelerates the deposition of calcified plaque.3 4 Is this paradoxical response of accelerated calcified plaque progression only observed in response to statin therapy?. Sung and colleagues address whether the progression of coronary artery calcium is associated with different levels of physical activity in healthy individuals.5 In a large cohort derived from two South Korean hospitals, 25 485 subjects underwent serial measurement of coronary artery calcium obtained over a median duration of 3 years and assessment of physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form.

    Physical activity was graded by the investigators as. Inactive (n=11 920, 47%). Moderately active (n=9683, 38%). Or health-enhancing physically active (n=3882, 15%), equivalent to running 6.5 km/day.

    Interestingly, the group performing the higher medically recommended levels of physical activity had the highest baseline burden of advanced calcified plaque (coronary artery calcium score ≥100 Agatston units. Inactive 2.8%, moderately active 3.5%, health-enhancing physically active 5.0%) which may be potentially attributable to an older demographic with higher rates of hypertension, diabetes and statin use. While it is unclear what the rationale was for undertaking health-enhancing physical activity in this cohort, it is likely that some participants with subclinical disease were doing so following medical guidance to improve control of established risk factors. Reassuringly in those with a coronary artery calcium score of zero (a low-risk group from a cardiovascular disease prevention perspective), medically recommended levels of physical activity did not accelerate the rate of coronary artery calcium progression modelled at 5 years (adjusted difference in mean coronary artery calcium score 0.32 Agatston units, 95% CI −0.15 to 0.81).

    However, in those who already had subclinical or more advanced atherosclerosis, health-enhancing physical activity significantly increased the burden of calcified plaque (adjusted difference in mean coronary artery calcium score 15.02 Agatston units, 95% CI 0.56 to 29.49). Does this really mean that vigorous exercise in those with established coronary artery disease paradoxically accelerates plaque progression?. This study fuels a wider discussion of some of the key limitations regarding the use of the coronary artery calcium scan to monitor coronary artery disease progression.First, the amount of calcification measured at baseline is a key determinant of the rate of progression. As illustrated in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, the trajectory of plaque calcification has a strong relationship with the baseline coronary artery calcium scan.6 In asymptomatic 40 year-olds, a coronary artery calcium score ≥100 Agatston units is considered a high burden of disease and one would expect to observe exponential growth in calcification over 5 years.

    In contrast, a coronary artery calcium score of zero would rarely change over the same time frame leading some investigators to label this as a ‘warranty period’ conferring coronary vascular stability. These small differences in coronary artery calcium scores at baseline become amplified over a 5-year follow-up period. Hence, the results of the study performed by Sung et al are in keeping with the main observation of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Progression is almost inevitable following the onset of calcification and the rate of progression appears to be only marginally influenced by the control of traditional risk factors.6Second, an accelerated rate calcified plaque progression does not equate to an accelerated rate of total atherosclerotic plaque progression.

    In this regard, the Progression of Atherosclerotic Plaque Determined by Computed Tomography Angiography Imaging study (NCT02803411) has provided valuable insight into the temporal changes in plaque composition using contrast-enhanced coronary CT angiography. In a cohort of 1255 patients recruited from seven countries, including South Korea, interval scans performed over a median of 3.4 years demonstrated a small increase in calcified plaque volume per annum in statin-taking compared with statin-naïve patients (progression of calcified plaque volume per annum 1.27±1.54 mm3 vs 0.98±1.27 mm3).4 However, the overall trend was towards slower rates of total plaque progression in those taking statins and this was driven by lower rates of non-calcified plaque accumulation (progression of non-calcified plaque volume per annum 0.49±2.39 mm3 vs 1.06±2.42 mm3).4 These changes are small in line with the chronic nature of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. More advanced molecular imaging techniques have shown that metabolically active plaques undergo phenotypic transformation from a non-calcified phenotype towards a more calcified plaque.7 It is within necrotic cores of non-calcified plaques, identified on coronary CT angiography as low-attenuation regions, where the propensity of plaques to rupture is greatest.8 As such, the calcification pathways upregulated in non-calcified plaques are thought to be a protective mechanism in response to chronic inflammation. By ‘walling off’ necrotic cores, calcification may indicate a transition towards a more stable metabolic phenotype.Do these findings mean that we should stop using coronary artery calcium scores to assess coronary artery disease?.

    Sung and colleagues have produced a timely manuscript that highlights the complexity of interpreting coronary artery calcium scores in patients who have implemented recommendations on physical activity or commenced on statin therapy. While proponents would argue that it is an effective tool to screen for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals, clinicians should be cautious regarding the overuse of this test in otherwise healthy individuals. The coronary artery calcium paradox should not result in paradoxical care for our patients.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required..

    Sex differences in clinical management and outcomes of patients with cardiovascular disease sometimes are diflucan online in canada due to healthcare inequities (which should be eliminated) but also might be due to sex-related differences in aetiology and pathophysiology. For example, the optimal medical dose for management of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) may diflucan online in canada be lower in women compared with men. In a study of 561 women and 615 men with a new diagnosis of either HRrEF or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), Bots and colleagues1 found that although 79% of women and 86% of men with HFrEF were prescribed an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), the average dose was only about 50% of the recommended target dose for both sexes. A lower ACEI/ARB dose was associated with higher survival outcomes in women, but diflucan online in canada not men, with HFrEF. In patients of both sexes with HFpEF, there was no relationship between medication dose and survival (figure 1).Central figure summarising the design and main findings of this study." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Central figure summarising the design and main findings of this study.In the accompanying editorial, Hassan and Ahmed 2 comment that.

    €˜Sex differences in diflucan online in canada HF outcomes may be further exacerbated by differences in medication pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, with female-specific physiological factors including lower body mass, as well as decreased renal excretion and gastrointestinal enzymatic activity, leading to higher medication bioavailability. As a result, the administration of sex-neutral medication doses leads to greater drug exposure in female patients, which may subsequently lead to a higher incidence of adverse drug reactions. This raises the possibility diflucan online in canada of sex-based HF treatments to improve clinical outcomes. However, current guidelines adopt a ‘one size fits all’ approach, with an emphasis on target-dosed therapy. In this era of precision medicine, is it time to redefine diflucan online in canada optimal HF therapy based on the sex of the patient?.

    €™On the other hand, adverse outcomes in women with infective endocarditis likely are related to bias and healthcare inequities. In a multicentric Spanish cohort of 3541 patients3 diagnosed with endocarditis between 2008 and 2018, women underwent surgical intervention less often than men (38.3% vs 50%) despite the increasing recognition that earlier surgical intervention often is beneficial as recommended in diflucan online in canada current guidelines (figure 2). The lower likelihood of surgery in women persisted after propensity matching for age and surgical diflucan online in canada risk (OR 0.74. 95% CI 0.59 to 0.91. P=0.05).

    In addition, women had a higher in-hospital mortality compared with men, even after adjusting for possible confounders (OR 1.41. 95% CI 1.21 to 1.65. P<0.001).Stratification of the GAMES (‘Grupo de Apoyo al Manejo de la Endocarditis Infecciosa en España’ or ‘Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis’) cohort according to surgical recommendation between sexes. Overall and stratified mortality is displayed in each group." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Stratification of the GAMES (‘Grupo de Apoyo al Manejo de la Endocarditis Infecciosa en España’ or ‘Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis’) cohort according to surgical recommendation between sexes. Overall and stratified mortality is displayed in each group.Van Spall, Jaffer and Mamas4 remind us of the many factors to be considered in the decision to recommend surgical intervention in a patient with endocarditis (figure 3).

    However, as they conclude. €˜Disparities in referral and receipt of surgical intervention, along with differences in aetiology, microbiology and comorbidities, may be responsible for the higher risk of mortality in women than in men with IE. Ultimately, awareness of these issues should prompt a self-evaluation of biases on the part of clinicians such that objective, timely surgical referrals are made and interventions are offered regardless of demographic group. While the biology is not modifiable, the biases and care disparities are.’Factors associated with infective endocarditis outcomes." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 3 Factors associated with infective endocarditis outcomes.Another interesting paper in this issue is the study by Sung and colleagues5 showing a positive, graded association between higher levels of physical activity and a higher prevalence, with more rapid progression, of coronary artery calcification (CAC). These findings were based on a cohort of 25 485 Korean men and women with a median interval between CAC measurements of 3 years.

    In discussing these seeming paradoxical findings, Gulsin and Moss6 point out that although CAC is a surrogate marker for calcified atherosclerosis and is associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction, treatment with a statin also accelerates deposition of calcified plaque, similar to the effects of physical activity in the current study. They also remind us that. (1) the severity of CAC at baseline is a key predictor of progression rates, (2) an increase in CAC score is not the same an accelerated rate of total atherosclerotic plaque progression, and (3) the risk of plaque rupture and clinical events is greatest within the necrotic core of noncalcified plaques. Thus, it is possible that an increase in CAC scores reflects a protective response and a transition to a more stable plaque morphology rather than more extensive atherosclerosis. They conclude.

    €˜Sung and colleagues5 have produced a timely manuscript that highlights the complexity of interpreting coronary artery calcium scores in patients who have implemented recommendations on physical activity or commenced on statin therapy. While proponents would argue that it is an effective tool to screen for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals, clinicians should be cautious regarding the overuse of this test in otherwise healthy individuals. The coronary artery calcium paradox should not result in paradoxical care for our patients.’The Education in Heart article7 in this issue provides an overview for clinicians to detect and manage mental issues in their patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a reciprocal relationship between mental disorders and CVD. Patients with mental disorders have a 1.5- to 3.0-fold higher risk of developing CVD and, conversely, the onset of CVD increases the risk of a developing a mental disorder by 2.2-fold.The Cardiology in-Focus topic in this issue is a step-by-step guide to writing a Image Challenge question, authored by our Image Challenge Editor.8 We encourage both cardiology trainees and clinicians to submit Image Challenge questions to Heart, using this basic guide, because this type of question accelerates learning for both the author and the reader (table 1).View this table:Table 1 Key components of an image challenge questionEthics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot applicable.Reducing the risk of plaque rupture events in individuals without a prior myocardial infarction is an imprecise science.

    To help clarify whether there is evidence of coronary artery disease and avoid ‘medicalisation’ of otherwise healthy individuals, international guidelines recommend incorporating the measurement of coronary artery calcium alongside risk prediction models.1 Coronary artery calcium serves as a surrogate marker of advanced calcified atherosclerosis and can be calculated from a non-contrast ECG-gated CT scan where a score of 1–99 Agatston units represents subclinical atherosclerosis, and a score of 100 or more Agatston units is considered an appropriate threshold for initiating medical therapy.1 At ≥100 Agatston units, the burden of advanced calcified atherosclerosis justifies statin implementation and this has been validated in a real-world cohort study of 16 996 subjects with a 10-year number needed to treat to prevent one cardiovascular event of 12.2 Many clinicians have advocated the benefits of coronary artery calcium in redefining the cardiovascular risk assessment of healthy individuals, as there is a strong link between high burdens of coronary artery calcium, accelerated progression of calcified plaque and the risk of future myocardial infarction. However, if the burden of calcified plaque is an accurate barometer of cardiovascular risk, one would expect an intervention which reduces an individual’s cardiovascular risk to attenuate progression of calcified plaque. And herein lies the coronary artery calcium paradox. Both invasive and non-invasive imaging studies have consistently demonstrated that high-intensity statin therapy, an established modifier of cardiovascular risk, accelerates the deposition of calcified plaque.3 4 Is this paradoxical response of accelerated calcified plaque progression only observed in response to statin therapy?. Sung and colleagues address whether the progression of coronary artery calcium is associated with different levels of physical activity in healthy individuals.5 In a large cohort derived from two South Korean hospitals, 25 485 subjects underwent serial measurement of coronary artery calcium obtained over a median duration of 3 years and assessment of physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form.

    Physical activity was graded by the investigators as. Inactive (n=11 920, 47%). Moderately active (n=9683, 38%). Or health-enhancing physically active (n=3882, 15%), equivalent to running 6.5 km/day. Interestingly, the group performing the higher medically recommended levels of physical activity had the highest baseline burden of advanced calcified plaque (coronary artery calcium score ≥100 Agatston units.

    Inactive 2.8%, moderately active 3.5%, health-enhancing physically active 5.0%) which may be potentially attributable to an older demographic with higher rates of hypertension, diabetes and statin use. While it is unclear what the rationale was for undertaking health-enhancing physical activity in this cohort, it is likely that some participants with subclinical disease were doing so following medical guidance to improve control of established risk factors. Reassuringly in those with a coronary artery calcium score of zero (a low-risk group from a cardiovascular disease prevention perspective), medically recommended levels of physical activity did not accelerate the rate of coronary artery calcium progression modelled at 5 years (adjusted difference in mean coronary artery calcium score 0.32 Agatston units, 95% CI −0.15 to 0.81). However, in those who already had subclinical or more advanced atherosclerosis, health-enhancing physical activity significantly increased the burden of calcified plaque (adjusted difference in mean coronary artery calcium score 15.02 Agatston units, 95% CI 0.56 to 29.49). Does this really mean that vigorous exercise in those with established coronary artery disease paradoxically accelerates plaque progression?.

    This study fuels a wider discussion of some of the key limitations regarding the use of the coronary artery calcium scan to monitor coronary artery disease progression.First, the amount of calcification measured at baseline is a key determinant of the rate of progression. As illustrated in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, the trajectory of plaque calcification has a strong relationship with the baseline coronary artery calcium scan.6 In asymptomatic 40 year-olds, a coronary artery calcium score ≥100 Agatston units is considered a high burden of disease and one would expect to observe exponential growth in calcification over 5 years. In contrast, a coronary artery calcium score of zero would rarely change over the same time frame leading some investigators to label this as a ‘warranty period’ conferring coronary vascular stability. These small differences in coronary artery calcium scores at baseline become amplified over a 5-year follow-up period. Hence, the results of the study performed by Sung et al are in keeping with the main observation of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

    Progression is almost inevitable following the onset of calcification and the rate of progression appears to be only marginally influenced by the control of traditional risk factors.6Second, an accelerated rate calcified plaque progression does not equate to an accelerated rate of total atherosclerotic plaque progression. In this regard, the Progression of Atherosclerotic Plaque Determined by Computed Tomography Angiography Imaging study (NCT02803411) has provided valuable insight into the temporal changes in plaque composition using contrast-enhanced coronary CT angiography. In a cohort of 1255 patients recruited from seven countries, including South Korea, interval scans performed over a median of 3.4 years demonstrated a small increase in calcified plaque volume per annum in statin-taking compared with statin-naïve patients (progression of calcified plaque volume per annum 1.27±1.54 mm3 vs 0.98±1.27 mm3).4 However, the overall trend was towards slower rates of total plaque progression in those taking statins and this was driven by lower rates of non-calcified plaque accumulation (progression of non-calcified plaque volume per annum 0.49±2.39 mm3 vs 1.06±2.42 mm3).4 These changes are small in line with the chronic nature of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. More advanced molecular imaging techniques have shown that metabolically active plaques undergo phenotypic transformation from a non-calcified phenotype towards a more calcified plaque.7 It is within necrotic cores of non-calcified plaques, identified on coronary CT angiography as low-attenuation regions, where the propensity of plaques to rupture is greatest.8 As such, the calcification pathways upregulated in non-calcified plaques are thought to be a protective mechanism in response to chronic inflammation. By ‘walling off’ necrotic cores, calcification may indicate a transition towards a more stable metabolic phenotype.Do these findings mean that we should stop using coronary artery calcium scores to assess coronary artery disease?.

    Sung and colleagues have produced a timely manuscript that highlights the complexity of interpreting coronary artery calcium scores in patients who have implemented recommendations on physical activity or commenced on statin therapy. While proponents would argue that it is an effective tool to screen for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals, clinicians should be cautious regarding the overuse of this test in otherwise healthy individuals. The coronary artery calcium paradox should not result in paradoxical care for our patients.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required..

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Diflucan and monistat

tg-head-f1

Lose the shirt off my back? Nah.

When life got dicey, I opened my closet doors, bypassed the blouses, and earned a (modest) payday by selling used hangers in 25-pack bundles.

More recently, I put my hustle into play at 500 Startups, the world’s most active venture capital fund and startup accelerator, where I led content, branding, marketing, operations, and corporate partnerships for business development and global programs.

Before transitioning into tech, I worked in higher education, teaching online research and media production classes across a variety of disciplines at the University of California, Berkeley. During that time, I also worked as the Director and Executive Producer of Digital Media Projects at the Blum Center for Developing Economies, where I co-founded and led The #GlobalPOV Project, a mixed-media approach to thinking about poverty, inequality, and undertaking poverty action.

In addition, I was the Director of Media at the Center for Middle Eastern Studies, where I had the opportunity to interview Bashar al-Assad in his presidential palace in Damascus, Syria, in late December of 2010. I asked Assad if he considered himself a dictator. He dodged the inquiry, but his actions in the immediate weeks, months, and years to follow answered the question . . . and then some. Sadly.

Before that, I was a practicing journalist and graduate fellow at the University of Southern California. During that time, I worked as a web reporter and photographer for KCET’s “SoCal Connected,”​ as an online editor for the London-based New Statesman magazine, and as the co-editor-in-chief of USC Annenberg’s award-winning digital news website. I got my start in journalism as a full-time associate editor (and employee #20!) at P✪PSUGAR, a Sequoia-backed content and commerce startup turned global media empire.

My freelance reporting has been featured in NBC, CBS, and ABC news broadcasts and in online publications, including The Huffington Post. I have also done manuscript editing for various authors with recognized commercial and university presses.

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