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  • #500STRONG

    New Team, New Shenanigans
    Jan 09

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    Written by Tara Graham

    So pleased and proud to be part of this amazing group of hardworking people. Watch out 2014: #500STRONG is going to kill it.

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  • Mediating

    Aug 23

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    Written by Tara Graham

    SCRIPT EXCERPT: Many people today, particularly those living comfortably in the global North, want to do something to solve the problems of the world, such as the problem of global poverty. They want to act upon poverty, alleviate poverty, volunteer to end poverty—but we must ask: What motivates us to travel short or long distances, to spend a day, a week, many months, or even a spare 15 minutes,...

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  • Mediating

    #GlobalPOV=Doing Good Responsibly, Reports NextBillion
    Jul 29

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    Written by Tara Graham

    NextBillion, an initiative of the World Resources Institute’s Markets and Enterprise Program in partnership with the William Davidson Institute (WDI) at the University of Michigan, is a web forum for the community of business leaders, social entrepreneurs, NGOs, policy makers and academics who want to explore the connection between development and enterprise. NextBillion recently highlighted The #GlobalPOV Project as part of its “NexThought Monday” coverage: Hardly a day goes...

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  • Mediating

    Jul 02

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    Written by Tara Graham

    SCRIPT EXCERPT: Welcome to the world-class city. It has towers, expressways, shopping malls, airports, private schools, and gated condominiums with golf courses, swimming pools and tennis courts. It has no slums, but the world-class city is built by slums — a paradox isn’t it? To see the city from the slum provides a different view, a view of the global urban future. Based on Prof. Ananya Roy’s popular Global...

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  • Mediating

    May 06

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The third video in The #GlobalPOV Project series is an exploration of the poverty business. SCRIPT EXCERPT: The poor pay more for everything, and such transactions are highly profitable for those selling goods and services to the poor. Profits are made on the labor of the poor, the consumption of the poor, and the debt of the poor; meanwhile the poor remain — poor. So who profits from poverty? Based...

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  • Mediating

    #GlobalPOV on Mediabistro’s “AllTwitter”
    May 03

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    Written by Tara Graham

    AllTwitter, a Mediabistro website devoted to breaking Twitter news, highlighted The #GlobalPOV Project as part of its “Pay It Forward Friday” coverage. Regarding the #GlobalPOV video series, AllTwitter writes: And the online videos they’re creating are intended to help “crystallize the nuanced teachings of Berkeley’s biggest minor, Global Poverty and Practice, offered by the Blum Center for Developing Economies.” The videos are posted online so those outside of the school can...

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  • Reporting

    ABC’s 20/20 Features Viral Video Footage of Jonas Brothers Stampede
    Apr 26

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    Written by Tara Graham

    ABC’s primetime news magazine program, “20/20,” aired an investigative report on social behavior and crowd chaos that featured the viral stampede footage I shot using my smartphone at a Jonas Brothers concert in May, 2010. (ABC Air Date: Apr. 26, 2013, Episode: “In An Instant”). NOTE: This post is an update to a previous post tracking the viral popularity of (and subsequent mainstream media interest in) the stampede footage when I posted...

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  • Mediating

    Borgen Project Highlights #GlobalPOV Project
    Apr 16

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The Borgen Project, a nonprofit organization with mission to fight extreme poverty through policy (not charity!) intervention, recently published an article highlighting The #GlobalPOV Project’s mixed-media approach to curriculum development and pedagogy. Check out the article here. To learn more about The Borgen Project, visit the website or read its mission statement below: The Borgen Project believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to...

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  • Mediating

    #GlobalPOV Is “Groundbreaking,” Reports UC Berkeley NewsCenter
    Apr 09

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The UC Berkeley NewsCenter recently sat down and interviewed the #GlobalPOV team to discuss the theory behind the project, the production process, and the fact that Prof. Roy would have had an easier time writing and publishing a book already. (But then that would be boring, no?) The article describes the project as “a groundbreaking alternative to dominant forms of online education, a hot topic that’s on the minds...

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  • Mediating

    Mar 13

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    Written by Tara Graham

    Prof. Roy micro-lectured into a micro-phone. I painstakingly cut some denim pockets with an X-ACTO knife. And Abby tried to brew tea in cold water. This vid resulted. The following is a behind-the-scenes look into the making of #GlobalPOV’s “Can We Shop To End Poverty?” video. The #GlobalPOV Project is a program of the Global Poverty and Practice (GPP) Minor. Based at the Blum Center for Developing Economies, University of California, Berkeley, the GPP Minor...

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  • Mediating

    Mar 12

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The second video in The #GlobalPOV Project series is an exploration of ethical consumerism and fair trade interventions. SCRIPT EXCERPT: However tempting it may be to believe that we save lives, empower women and do good with our purchases, the impacts of our consumption on poverty cannot be reduced to mere product labels. Consumers need to understand the life histories of global commodities and advocate for changes in how...

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  • Mediating

    Blum Center News: #GlobalPOV Encourages Students To Become Public Scholars
    Dec 04

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The #GlobalPOV Project’s in-class tweeting component was covered in the Fall 2012 edition of the Blum Center newsletter. In the article, writer Javier Kordi notes: Being a public medium, Twitter allows anyone to join the conversation, but also forces Berkeley students to think of themselves as public scholars— everything they post falls under the scrutiny of the global community. . . . Tara Graham, the architect of this project,...

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  • Mediating

    Nov 29

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    Written by Tara Graham

    Prof. Roy yacked on and on about Bono. Abby did some doodling. I shoved a camera in everyone’s face. This vid resulted. The following is a behind-the-scenes look into the making of The #GlobalPOV Project’s “Who Sees Poverty?” pilot video. The #GlobalPOV Project is a program of the Global Poverty and Practice (GPP) Minor. Based at the Blum Center for Developing Economies at the University of California, Berkeley, the...

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  • Mediating

    Nov 27

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    Written by Tara Graham

    SCRIPT EXCERPT: Poverty exists. That it exists, that it persists, in the 21st century is an obscenity. We want to end this poverty. We want to make poverty history. But we have to ask ourselves: Who is the “we” who sees poverty? When we see poverty, what is that we see? And finally, how do we act upon these ways of seeing? Based on Prof. Ananya Roy’s popular Global...

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  • Mediating

    Daily Cal Talks Twitter In The Classroom
    Oct 16

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The Daily Californian, the student-run UC Berkeley paper of record, visited Prof. Ananya Roy’s “Global Poverty: Challenges and Hopes In The New Millennium” class this week to explore our use of Twitter in a large lecture hall setting. “By projecting tweets pertaining to the class on a screen, professors are able to use teaching methods that allow large groups of students to interact with one another and the professor...

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  • Mediating

    #GlobalPOV: From Public University To Twitterverse
    Sep 27

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The following was originally published via the #GlobalPOV Blog on the Blum Center for Developing Economies website. I co-authored the piece with Prof. Ananya Roy, Education Director of the Global Poverty and Practice Minor at the University of California, Berkeley. In it, we seek to explain the logic behind The #GlobalPOV Project’s Twitter integration and experimentation. By now, it’s common knowledge that Twitter and other forms of social media are...

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  • Reporting

    OPINION: Military, Money & Motives In Egypt
    Feb 18

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The following was originally published via the Harvard University Press Blog. I co-authored the piece with Nezar AlSayyad, Professor of Architecture and Urban History, and Chair of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. “Egypt has passed through a critical period in her recent history characterized by bribery, mischief, and the absence of governmental stability . . . Accordingly, we have undertaken to clean ourselves up...

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  • Reporting

    Syrian President Bashar al-Assad To Me: “Ask The People If I Am Their Dictator”
    Dec 21

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    Written by Tara Graham

    In December 2010, days before a street vendor in Tunisia self-immolated and effectively set the Middle East region afire with a wave of popular uprisings, I had the opportunity to accompany an academic delegation to Bashar al-Assad’s presidential palace in Damascus, Syria. I was the only journalist in the delegation, so I was able to ask Assad a series of questions about his leadership style (does he consider himself a dictator?),...

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  • Reporting

    May 15

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The Jonas Brothers launched their 2010 world tour by giving a free concert at The Grove in Los Angeles, Calif., on May 15, 2010. Over 25,000 adoring fans showed up and made a mad rush for the stage, trampling over each other and security barriers in the process. Chaos ensued, but no injuries were reported. I was there to capture the madness on my smartphone (see above). Nick and...

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  • Reporting

    News Statesman Mag: Sampling of Published Work
    Jul 23

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    Written by Tara Graham

    While taking a University of Southern California foreign reporting class in London, England, during the summer of 2009, I had the opportunity to work as a web editor for the New Statesman magazine. The following is a sampling of the work produced during this time. I mostly reported U.S. political news stories for the website, but I also had the opportunity to contribute research assistance and book reviews to the print publication....

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  • Reporting

    Race In America: ’08 HuffPo Election Coverage Generates Online Debate
    Oct 14

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    Written by Tara Graham

    I had the opportunity to report for The Huffington Post’s “Off-The-Bus” election coverage team while studying journalism on an Annenberg Graduate Fellowship at the University of Southern California. The following story highlights excerpts from my interview with L.A. radio host Joe Hicks, a conservative who said he intended to vote for then-presidential candidate John McCain. The story was one of the most popular on the HuffPo site at the time...

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  • So Tweet Me Maybe?

    Sep 12

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    Written by Tara Graham

    Tweets by @LilMissWordy

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My Students
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    Fencing Policies is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Maria Esparza during the 2013 spring semester. ACCORDING...

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    Literacy Lockup is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Katherine Fleeman during the 2013 spring semester. ACCORDING...

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    SPACExRACE is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Nishant Budhraja during the 2013 spring semester. ACCORDING TO...

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    The Conflict Medium is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Rashad Sisemore in my online research and...

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    Poverty Pitch is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Dominique Martinez in my online research and web...

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    Musical Bark is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Erica Smolin in my online research and web...

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    Righteous Eats is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Rachel Soeharto in my online research and web...

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    Fist Pump The World is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Kyle Meshna in my international reporting...

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    Media, Politics & Society: The Arab World In The Global Context is a website I produced to house all...

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UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, Los Angeles

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, Berkeley


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Oct. 2013 — May 2016 | DIRECTOR, BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT & GLOBAL PROGRAMS
500 Startups, Silicon Valley, CA, USA

I led content, branding, marketing, operations, and partnerships for business development & events at 500 Startups. With aim to educate startup and investor audiences, grow the #500STRONG community worldwide, and produce profitable programming, my responsibilities included:

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    In early March, when erectile dysfunction testing was still scarce, Maggie Flannery, buy generic viagra online a Manhattan sixth-grader, and both her parents fell ill with the symptoms http://taragraham.com/get-viagra-prescription-online/ of erectile dysfunction treatment. After three weeks, her buy generic viagra online parents recovered. Maggie also seemed to get better, but only briefly before suffering a relapse that left her debilitated.“It felt like an elephant sitting on my chest,” Maggie said.

    €œIt was hard to take a deep breath, I was nauseous all the time, I didn’t want to eat, I was very light-headed when I stood up or even just lying down.” She also experienced joint pain and severe fatigue.At first, specialists suggested Maggie’s symptoms might be psychological, buy generic viagra online in part because she showed no sign of heart or lung damage. She also tested negative for both the erectile dysfunction itself and for antibodies to it. But viral tests taken long after the initial are generally negative, and antibody tests are frequently inaccurate.“They didn’t know anything about ‘long-erectile dysfunction treatment’ at that point,” buy generic viagra online said Amy Wilson, Maggie’s mother.

    €œThey said it was anxiety. I was pretty sure buy generic viagra online that wasn’t true.”Maggie’s pediatrician, Dr. Amy DeMattia, has since confirmed the erectile dysfunction treatment diagnosis, based on the child’s clinical history and the fact that both her parents tested positive for erectile dysfunction antibodies.More than seven months into the erectile dysfunction viagra, it has become increasingly apparent that many patients with both severe and mild illness do not fully recover.

    Weeks and months after exposure, these erectile dysfunction treatment “long-haulers,” as they buy generic viagra online have been called, continue experiencing a range of symptoms, including exhaustion, dizziness, shortness of breath and cognitive impairments. Children are generally at significantly less risk than older people for serious complications and death from erectile dysfunction treatment, but the long-term impacts of on them, if any, have been especially unclear.Although doctors recognize that a small number of children have suffered a rare inflammatory syndrome shortly after , there is little reliable information about how many who get erectile dysfunction treatment have prolonged complaints like Maggie Flannery. That could change as the proportion of children who are infected rises.According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, children represented 10.9 percent of reported cases nationwide as of mid-October, up from just 2.2 buy generic viagra online percent in April.Dr.

    Richard Besser, a pediatrician and chief executive of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, which focuses on health policy, said parents can be reassured by the data on children’s reduced overall risk. But he noted that buy generic viagra online much remains unknown about erectile dysfunction and its medical consequences, including among children, and that continued vigilance is warranted.“With schools reopening, we’re likely to see more s in children,” he said. €œWe need to make sure we’re doing the studies to understand the short, medium and long-term effects.”To manage her condition, Maggie, who is 12, must limit her activities.

    Although she has been able to attend socially distanced in-person classes at her small private school on the Upper West Side, she no longer walks buy generic viagra online the 15 blocks there and back. She has trouble concentrating, so homework takes a lot longer. She has stopped buy generic viagra online attending online ballet classes.

    Before the viagra, she went to four ballet classes a week.“Some days are a lot better than others,” said Maggie. €œIf I do too much on the good days, I feel a lot worse on the next day or next couple of days, and some days I can’t do anything if it’s a bad day.” She has felt a slight improvement over time, buy generic viagra online she said.Maggie with her mother, Amy Wilson. €œThey didn’t know anything about ‘long-erectile dysfunction treatment’ at that point,” said Ms.

    Wilson. €œThey said it was anxiety. I was pretty sure that wasn’t true.”Credit...Brittainy Newman for The New York TimesAs with Maggie, 19-year-old Chris Wilhelm and his parents got sick around the same time.

    In their case, it was in June, when viral tests were more available. All three of them tested positive. Only Chris, a rising sophomore at Johns Hopkins and a member of the cross-country and track and field teams, did not get better.Since he did not initially know about the possibility of chronic symptoms, Chris said, he was “confused” and “shocked” about his condition.

    The first doctors he consulted told him the symptoms would fade, he said.“For a while it was just, ‘We need to wait a bit longer, it will just get better with time,’” he said. €œEveryone was giving me this magic number, like the 12-week mark is when all your respiratory issues are supposed to go away. We hit that weeks ago, and there’s really not any improvement.”Chris recently consulted with Dr.

    Peter Rowe, a professor of pediatrics at Johns Hopkins who specializes in chronic and debilitating conditions like myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, which is often triggered by a viral illness and has no approved drug treatments. Dr. Rowe determined that Chris has the heart-racing condition known as postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, or POTS, which can occur after viral s and limits the ability to carry out day-to-day activities.“He had been capable of training 60 and 70 miles a week as a runner,” said Dr.

    Rowe, adding that some of the symptoms and the “really severe impairment” that Chris and many other long-haulers suffer from are characteristic of ME/CFS.Under Dr. Rowe’s direction, Chris has been trying different medications in an effort to alleviate the symptoms.In Baltimore, the Kennedy Krieger Institute, a treatment facility for children with neurological and other chronic disabilities, is offering multidisciplinary services for those under 21 who continue to experience challenges after erectile dysfunction treatment. So far the institute has seen only one patient, said Dr.

    Melissa Trovato, the institute’s interim medical director of rehabilitation.With s on the rise, Dr. Trovato said she thought it was “quite possible” the clinic will see more patients with persistent symptoms in the coming months. Because of the perception that erectile dysfunction treatment is rare in kids, she said, parents might not associate a mild illness and subsequent effects, like a loss of energy, with the erectile dysfunction.“It might take more time for family to pick up on it,” she said.

    €œFrom a pediatric perspective there probably is more that we’re going to find out, as more children” with “prolonged symptoms come forward and get seen.”Ziah McKinney-Taylor, a dancer and birth doula in Atlanta, never doubted that her 14-year-old daughter, Ava, was suffering from the lingering effects of erectile dysfunction treatment, even though she tested negative for both the viagra and antibodies. Before Ava got sick in March, said Ms. McKinney-Taylor, she was a “super-energetic kid” who took dancing and aikido lessons five days a week.

    That has changed. €œShe has never really gotten her energy back, she is always sleeping and napping,” she said.Ava herself rejected as “ridiculous” the suggestion from some doctors that her exhaustion might be related to the stresses of life under quarantine. €œLike, ‘You’re just not getting to do your normal activities,’” she said.

    €œI’m a very active person, this couldn’t just be, ‘Oh, I’m sad that my friends are gone.’”Like other families confronting similar uncertainties, Ms. McKinney-Taylor and her daughter are feeling their way forward amid the unknowns of the disease. €œIt is very scary as a parent to not know how to prepare yourself and protect your child, other than read lots of articles and be on a Slack group,” she said, referring to the Body Politic erectile dysfunction treatment online support community.Under the circumstances, Ava said it can be tough to maintain her spirits.

    €œIt’s a little hard to have hope right now,” she said. €œWe don’t know if this will be a lifelong thing, if this will last a year, or two years or five years. So the future is not looking too bright for me personally.”Could running actually be good for your knees?.

    That idea is at the heart of a fascinating new study of the differing effects of running and walking on the knee joint. Using motion capture and sophisticated computer modeling, the study confirms that running pummels knees more than walking does. But in the process, the authors conclude, running likely also fortifies and bulks up the cartilage, the rubbery tissue that cushions the ends of bones.

    The findings raise the beguiling possibility that, instead of harming knees, running might fortify them and help to stave off knee arthritis.Of course, the notion that running wrecks knees is widespread and entrenched. Almost anyone who runs is familiar with warnings from well-meaning, nonrunning family members, friends and strangers that their knees are doomed.This concern is not unwarranted. Running involves substantial joint bending and pounding, which can fray the cushioning cartilage inside the knee.

    Cartilage, which does not have its own blood supply, generally is thought to have little ability to repair itself when damaged or to change much at all after childhood. So, repeated running conceivably wears away fragile cartilage and almost inevitably should lead to crippling knee arthritis.But in real life, it does not. Some runners develop knee arthritis, but not all.

    As a group, in fact, runners may be statistically less likely to become arthritic than nonrunners.The question of why running spares so many runners’ knees has long intrigued Ross Miller, an associate professor of kinesiology at the University of Maryland in College Park. In earlier research, he and his colleagues had looked into whether running mechanics matter, by asking volunteers to walk and run along a track outfitted with plates to measure the forces generated with each step.The resulting data showed that people hit the ground harder while running, clobbering their knees far more with each stride. But they also spent more time aloft between strides, meaning they took fewer strides while covering the same distance as when walking.

    So, the cumulative forces moving through their knees over time should be about the same, the researchers concluded, whether someone walked or ran.But, recently, Dr. Miller had begun to doubt whether this finding really explained why running wasn’t wrecking more knees. He knew that some recent studies with animals intimated that cartilage might be more resilient than researchers previously had believed.

    In those studies, animals that ran tended to have thicker, healthier knee cartilage than comparable tissues from sedentary animals, suggesting that the active animals’ cartilage had changed in response to their running.Perhaps, Dr. Miller speculated, cartilage in human runners’ knees likewise might alter and adapt.To find out, he again asked a group of healthy young men and women to walk and run along a track containing force plates, while he and his colleagues filmed them. The researchers then computed the forces the volunteers had generated while strolling and running.

    Finally, they modeled what the future might hold for the volunteers’ knees.More specifically, they used the force-plate numbers, plus extensive additional data from past studies of biopsied cartilage pulled and pummeled in the lab until it fell apart and other sources to create computer simulations. They wanted to see what, theoretically, would happen to healthy knee cartilage if an adult walked for six kilometers (about 3.7 miles) every day for years, compared to if they walked for three kilometers and ran for another three kilometers each of those days.They also tested two additional theoretical situations. For one, the researchers programmed in the possibility that people’s knee cartilage would slightly repair itself after repeated small damage from walking or running — but not otherwise change.

    And for the last scenario, they presumed that the cartilage would actively remodel itself and adapt to the demands of moving, growing thicker and stronger, much as muscle does when we exercise.The models’ final results were eye-opening. According to the simulations, daily walkers faced about a 36 percent chance of developing arthritis by the age of 55, if the model did not include the possibility of the knee cartilage adapting or repairing itself. That risk dropped to about 13 percent if cartilage were assumed to be able to repair or adapt, which is about what studies predict to be the real-world arthritis risk for otherwise healthy people.The numbers for running were more worrisome.

    When the model assumed cartilage cannot change, the runners’ risk of eventual arthritis was a whopping 98 percent, declining only to 95 percent if the model factored in the possibility of cartilage repair. In effect, according to this scenario, the damage to cartilage from frequent running would overwhelm any ability of the tissue to fix itself.But if the model included the likelihood of the cartilage actively adapting — growing thicker and cushier — when people ran, the odds of runners developing arthritis fell to about 13 percent, the same as for healthy walkers.What these results suggest is that cartilage is malleable, Dr. Ross says.

    It must be able to sense the strains and slight damage from running and rebuild itself, becoming stronger. In this scenario, running bolsters cartilage health.Modeled results like these are theoretical, though, and limited. They do not explain how cartilage remodels itself without a blood supply or if genetics, nutrition, body weight, knee injuries and other factors affect individual arthritis risks.

    Such models also do not tell us if different distances, speeds or running forms would alter the outcomes. To learn more, we will need direct measures of molecular and other changes in living human cartilage after running, Dr. Miller says, but such tests are difficult.Still, this study may quiet some runners’ qualms — and those of their families and friends.

    €œIt looks like running is unlikely to cause knee arthritis by wearing out cartilage,” Dr. Ross says..

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    IntroductionCurrently, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is defined as an autoimmune disorder classically characterised by pancreatic islet beta-cell destruction triggered by autoreactive T cells, resulting in subsequent severe insulin other uses for viagra deficiency and lifelong reliance on exogenous insulin.1 2 This autoimmune diabetes accounts for 5%–19% of diabetes and represents the main form of diabetes in children and adolescents.3 Its incidence is increasing worldwide at a rate of 2%–5% per year.4 This rising incidence and multiple severe diabetic complications lead to increased mortality and morbidity http://theblackcatphotography.com/?foogallery=commercial and aggravate the economic burden of the disease. It is accepted that the interplay between genetic factors and environmental precipitators, including ancestry and geographic location, viral and bacterial s, vitamin D, hygiene and microbiota, leads to specific tissue inflammation, namely, insulitis, insulin-producing cell death and consequent clinical disease.5–9The genetic component of other uses for viagra T1DM can be demonstrated by the fact that siblings and offspring of patients with T1DM have a higher risk than the general population, and disease concordance in identical twins is higher than that in dizygotic twins.10 11 Over the past few years, genome-wide association study (GWAS), which measures and analyses a million or more DNA sequence variations in known linkage regions in unrelated individuals, have identified at least 58 susceptible loci combined with linkage analysis and candidate gene studies (figure 1).12–14 Most of the identified variants are common (minor allele frequency (MAF) >5%) and have modest effects (OR <1.5), although the effects of susceptibility genes such as human leucocyte antigen (HLA), insulin (INS) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) are stronger (figure 1).13 The HLA region (OR >6), located on human chromosome 6p21 and identified by linkage analysis, accounts for the largest proportion of T1DM heritability and explains approximately 50% of genetic T1DM risk.15 In addition to HLA, variants within the INS and PTPN22 loci, which were first identified by candidate gene studies, have larger effect sizes (OR >2) than other variants.13 The INS gene on human chromosome 11p15.5 offers the next strongest genetic risk association with T1DM after HLA and accounts for approximately 10% of genetic susceptibility to T1DM.16 It is believed that ‘missing heritability’ can be at least partially elucidated by rare and low-frequency variants (rare variants defined as variants with MAF ≤1% and low-frequency variants defined as variants with MAF=1%–5%), and some findings have indicated that rare variants have larger effect sizes than common variants.17–19 From an evolutionary standpoint, risk variants with higher penetrance are more likely to be rare due to negative selection. Taking an extreme example, monogenic/Mendelian disorders such as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type I are caused by rare variants with large effect sizes and other uses for viagra high penetrance. Intriguingly, recent and previous studies focusing on the identification of rare and low-frequency variants involved in T1DM have found a handful of such variants, and some of them do have large effect sizes.13 20–23Candidate genes or loci of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and their ORs (the yellow bars represent the rare and low-frequency genetic variants of T1DM).76–79 " data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Candidate genes or loci of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and their ORs (the yellow bars represent the rare and low-frequency genetic variants of T1DM).76–79However, some studies suggest that most rare variants have only small or modest effects.24 Therefore, it remains to be seen whether the tendency of rare and low-frequency variants to have large effects is a universal phenomenon. Even though its other uses for viagra practical value in clinical medicine may be restricted if the hypothesis that most rare variants have only a small effect is true, there is still intrinsic value in this field.

    Such studies can lead to the discovery of new candidate genes implicated in other uses for viagra disorders or human phenotypes25 and determine causal genes in candidate regions identified by GWAS. Other than understanding better its pathophysiology, new loci could lead to the identification of new biomarkers or represent drug targets for T1DM.Identifying rare and low-frequency variantsRecently, advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technologies as well as bioinformatic tools and methods to process and analyse the resulting data have enhanced the ability of researchers to find rare variants, and the decreasing cost of these technologies has made it feasible to apply them to related studies (table 1).26 The most comprehensive approach is high-depth whole-genome sequencing (WGS) due to its excellent coverage. However, high costs and multiple computational challenges have restricted its application.21 In addition to WGS with high or other uses for viagra low depth, SNP-array genome-wide genotyping and imputation has been used to identify rare variants. Notably, current sequencing depth (especially 30x) of WGS is likely to miss other uses for viagra at least some coding variants as compared with whole-exome sequencing (WES, especially >100x).View this table:Table 1 Technologies and study designs for detecting rare variantsThere are some lower-cost alternatives as well. First, a combination of low-depth WGS and imputation is another choice.

    Imputation is a statistical method that can determine genotypes that are not directly detected by taking advantage other uses for viagra of various previously sequenced reference panels. For instance, Martínez-Bueno and Alarcón-Riquelme identified rare variants that were jointly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus other uses for viagra (SLE) within 98 SLE candidate genes by applying genome-wide imputation and other techniques.27 Notably, some studies have indicated that the newer imputation panels, such as the recent Haplotype Reference Consortium panel and the combined UK10K and 1000 Genomes projects phase III, provide better quality of imputation for rare variants compared with early panel, such as the UK10K, which underlines the significance and potential of larger reference panels to impute rare variants.28 29 Nevertheless, the power of imputation for identifying rare variants is attenuated because its accuracy decreases with decreasing MAF. Additionally, studies have indicated that the utility of population-specific panels leads to improved imputation accuracy of rare variants.30 Therefore, the utilisation of imputation is relatively limited in non-European populations because of the lack of ethnicity-specific reference cohorts.Second, using WES finds rare variants within protein-coding regions. Given the reality that only an exceedingly small portion of the human genome is coding sequence and the functions of protein-coding variants are more easily interpreted, WES other uses for viagra is considered a cost-effective technique for discovering rare variants. However, an obvious defect is that WES ignores non-coding regions, other uses for viagra which account for 98% of the human genome.

    Moreover, most loci identified by GWAS are located in non-coding regions, and evidence indicates that these regions play critical roles in complex disorders and have significant biological functions.31 32Third, targeted sequencing investigates a specific part of the genome, including candidate genes identified by previous studies and clinically significant genes. For instance, Rivas et al identified a protein-truncating variant of the gene RNF186 that can exert a protective effect against ulcerative colitis via changed localisation and decreased expression by conducting targeted sequencing in regions other uses for viagra previously associated with inflammatory bowel disease. They found that this loss-of-function variant was a promising therapeutic target.33 However, some targeted sequencing studies have failed to detect rare risk variants, indicating the deficiency of this method in discovering rare and low-frequency variants.24 34In addition, burden tests, which collapse information for multiple variants other uses for viagra into a single genetic score and analyse the association between the score and disease characteristic, are a common approach in genomics to potentialise identification of rare variants, because aggregating analysis of variants within a gene can improve the power to detect statistical signals between case and control subjects. For example, a study analysed WES data from 393 patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) against 123 136 control subjects from public sequencing database, and identified a significant burden in TYRO3, a candidate gene implicated in IHH in mouse models.35 However, this gene-based burden testing approach will lose power when effects of variants are not in the same direction or the causal variants only account for a small fraction.36Traditional genetic studies have focused mostly on DNA sequences collected from unrelated individuals. However, a variety of new study designs have been applied to finding rare variants with the goal of decreasing other uses for viagra sample sizes and costs.

    The common feature of these designs, including extreme phenotype sampling, population isolates and family studies (table 1), is that they improve the power of rare variant testing by selecting a specific population.37–39Challenges for identifying rare and low-frequency variantsThe detection and analysis of rare and low-frequency variants constitute a rising research field, but this field has encountered other uses for viagra substantial obstacles and challenges. First, the statistical analysis of rare and low-frequency variants is far more complicated and difficult than the analysis of common variants. For example, because other uses for viagra the number of rare variants is greater than the number of common variants, the significance threshold or p value established for GWAS is not appropriate for rare variant association studies.40 The linkage disequilibrium (LD) r2 between two rare variants or a common variant and a rare variant cannot be accurately calculated, and as such it is difficult to define if novel rare variants are independent from known rare or common variants.41 42 A variety of traditional methods used to reduce or eliminate confounding factors and population stratification, such as linear mixed effect models and principal components analysis, are not applicable to the analysis of rare and low-frequency variants because rare variants and the distribution of disease risk are strictly localised. A study indicates other uses for viagra that the estimated ancestry scores can be used to control the population stratification if the pool of control is large. Also, off-targeted read might be applied for controlling population stratification in targeted sequencing.43 Moreover, because these variants are rare, the strategy used to analyse common variants, which is based on analysing a single variant at a time, is underpowered to detect rare variants and can do so only if the effect size or sample size is exceedingly large.44 Thus, alternative methods have been developed to analyse the aggregate effect of rare variants.45–47 These methods, such as burden tests, variance component test and exponential combination tests, evaluate association for multiple variants in a gene or a biologically region.

    Combined analysis of genetic association data with other biological information, such as methylation, gene expression and biological pathways, can also leads to substantial gain In the statistical power of rare other uses for viagra variants studies.48–50Second, it still remains challenging to apply genetic information obtained by rare variants association studies to diagnostic and prognostic medicine because some healthy individuals carry deleterious variants. For example, Flannick et al found that a other uses for viagra large portion of the general population carries low-frequency non-synonymous mutations that can change the length or sequence of coding proteins in maturity-onset diabetes of young genes, and these carriers remain normoglycaemic through middle age.51 In addition, Bick et al discovered that rare variants in sarcomere protein genes could boost the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in Framingham Heart Study participants, and more surprisingly, a large number of non-synonymous variants, including nonsense, missense and splice variants, are present in healthy populations.52 Therefore, the functional validation of rare and low-frequency genetic variants is necessary to determine the causality in genotype-phenotype analysis.Third, many rare and low-frequency variants are geographically localised and population specific, so it is difficult to find suitable replication panels and generate a common population. Nelson et al sequenced 202 drug target genes in coding regions in 14 002 people and found that 95% of observed variants are rare and at least 74% are detected in only one or two individuals.53 Similarly, a study conducted in 2440 individuals of African and European ancestry found that 86% of over 500 000 variants identified are rare, and most are previously unknown.54 Notably, these studies indicate that the vast majority of rare variant allelic spectra are unique to their sample sets and need to be identified by direct resequencing.Finally, although some detection studies of rare and low-frequency variants, such as WES and data processing software, are relatively standardised, many aspects of this emerging field, including WES capture technologies and even the definition of rare variants, still do not have uniform standards. Therefore, combining data generated from different groups is problematic.Benefits of identifying rare and low-frequency variantsIt has been suggested that rare and low-frequency variants account for a large proportion of the genetic variation in the other uses for viagra human genome represented by the 1000 Genomes Project.55 56 Although a substantial number of SNPs have been identified by GWAS, there is still a so-called ‘missing heritability’ phenomenon in complex disorders.57 For instance, GWAS have identified >80 common variants with small effect sizes for T2DM, which can explain only 10% of the total heritability.58 To address this issue, several hypotheses have been proposed, and great technological advances have provided a better understanding of the genetic architecture of common diseases over the past several years. Rare and low-frequency variants can influence both susceptibility to common complex diseases and their phenotypes (table 2).59–62 For example, researchers performed WGS in 1038 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, a rare disorder characterised by occlusion of arterioles in the lung) cases and 6385 other uses for viagra control subjects and make the total proportion of cases explained by mutations increased to 23.5% from previously established 19.9% by incorporating novel rare variants and genes identified.63 Also, a study indicated that rare variants of SLC22A12 gene influence urate reabsorption and the heritability explained by these SLC22A12 variants exceeds 10%, indicating that rare functional variants make substantial contribution to the ‘missing heritability’ of serum urate level.64 In fact, a ‘common disease-rare variant model’ that assumes rare variants with high penetrance may be involved in increased complex disease risk has been proposed.59 65 It is obvious that great genetic heterogeneity exists under this model.

    Intriguingly, in line with this model, some autoimmune diseases, such as T1DM, are extremely heterogeneous.View this table:Table 2 Rare and low-frequency variants associated with T1DM, T2DM and other autoimmune diseasesBesides rare and low-frequency genetic variants, there are some other hypotheses to explain the ‘missing heritability’.59 For example, empirical and theoretical analyses have indicated that multiple genetic variants with small effects are missed because GWAS are underpowered to capture these variants, therefore, taking into account genetic variants with smaller effects that do not reach significance will contribute to disease susceptibility and phenotype variability. Additionally, structural variants, such as CNV, are poorly studied owing to insufficient coverage on SNP chips.66 The presence of other uses for viagra gene-gene (epistasis) and gene-environmental interactions may also contribute to the ‘missing heritability’.67In addition, the candidate regions identified by GWAS sometimes harbour several different genes. Identifying rare genetic variants is helpful to pinpoint causal genes within the loci identified by GWAS.68 Moreover, the identification of rare and low-frequency variants may result in the identification of new candidate genes.40 For instance, researchers identified a heterozygote truncating mutation within CLCN1 gene by performing WES in patients with statin-associated myopathy and therefore, determined a novel candidate gene of this disease.69 Additionally, it has been suggested that rare variants are likely to have appeared more recently than common variants, leading other uses for viagra to reduced LD and making them more easily interpretable than common variants.21Moreover, early studies have indicated that rare and low-frequency genetic variants may have larger effects on complex disease phenotypes and susceptibility than common variants.70 Therefore, it is helpful to reveal the genetic pathways underlying diseases and to provide clinically actionable targets for personalised medicine. As an example, Roth et al found that rare and low-frequency genetic variants with large phenotypic effects within the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) gene, which encodes products that bind to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and increase its degradation, can lower the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by reducing the circulating level of LDL cholesterol.71 Based on this research, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting PCSK9 has been proven to increase LDL receptor recycling and decrease LDL cholesterol level.72 These findings provide a new treatment and prevention strategy for hypercholesterolaemia and CHD and offer inspiration for the transformation of genetic discoveries into clinical practice.Rare and low-frequency variants and T1DMFocusing on autoimmune diabetes, fully understanding the genetic factors underlying T1DM is beneficial for revealing its pathophysiology, discovering new drug targets and developing predictive and personalised medicine (figure 2). It is especially other uses for viagra vital and valuable because T1DM is extremely complex and heterogeneous.

    The candidate T1DM loci identified by GWAS other uses for viagra sometimes contain several distinct genes, and strong LD makes it difficult to pinpoint the precise causative genes in genomic regions. In addition, the fact that many SNPs reside in non-coding regions or do not have obvious functional effects offers few clues to ascertain the causative genes. However, the discovery of rare and low-frequency disease-associated variants is helpful for T1DM candidate gene other uses for viagra identification. The T1DM-associated region on human chromosome 2q24 harbours interferon (IFN) induced with helicase C domain other uses for viagra 1 (IFIH1), GCA, FAP and part of KCNH7. The interaction between IFIH1 and double-stranded RNA, a byproduct of viral replication, leads to the secretion of IFNs.

    While IFIH1 is a plausible susceptibility gene on the basis of its biological function, there is no direct evidence to indicate which of these genes in this locus is responsible for increased T1DM risk other uses for viagra. Nejentsev et other uses for viagra al resequenced the exons and splice sites of 10 candidate genes in pools of DNA from 480 patients and 480 controls and discovered 4 rare or low-frequency variants (OR=0.51–0.74, MAF <3%) with low LD within IFIH1 that could change the structure or expression of its product, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 and protect against T1DM.23 This finding suggests that IFIH1 is the disease-causing gene. Moreover, Ge et al found several rare deleterious variants, including two novel frameshift mutations (ss538819444 and ss37186329) and two missense mutations (rs74163663 and rs56048322) within PTPN22 by deeply sequencing the protein-coding regions of 301 genes in 49 loci previously identified by GWAS in 70 T1DM cases of European ancestry.22 This finding further confirmed that PTPN22 is a T1DM candidate gene on chromosome 1p13.2. Subsequent genotyping in 3609 families with T1DM indicated rs56048322 (MAF=0.87%), which leads to the production of two alternative PTPN22 other uses for viagra transcripts and a novel isoform of its encoding protein, LYP, through affecting splicing of PTPN22, was significantly associated with T1DM independent of T1DM-associated common variant rs2476601. Functional analysis showed this isoform of LYP can cause hyporesponsiveness of CD4+ T cell to antigen stimulation in patients with T1DM.50 candidate loci have other uses for viagra been identified by genome-wide association study.

    The genetic variants within these risk regions can be divided into common variants, low-frequency variants and rare variants according to their different minor allele frequencies. The rare and low-frequency variants other uses for viagra are likely to have more practical value in the treatment of T1DM because their ORs are larger than those of common variants. However, as the study of rare and low-frequency variants is an emerging research field, some hypotheses other uses for viagra are still controversial right here and need further investigation. LD, linkage disequilibrium. MAF.

    Minor allele frequency." class="highwire-fragment fragment-images colorbox-load" rel="gallery-fragment-images-147880047" data-figure-caption="The development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). T1DM is caused by interplay between genetic and environmental factors, and epigenetics serves as a bridge between the two. To date, >50 candidate loci have been identified by genome-wide association study. The genetic variants within these risk regions can be divided into common variants, low-frequency variants and rare variants according to their different minor allele frequencies. The rare and low-frequency variants are likely to have more practical value in the treatment of T1DM because their ORs are larger than those of common variants.

    However, as the study of rare and low-frequency variants is an emerging research field, some hypotheses are still controversial and need further investigation. LD, linkage disequilibrium. MAF. Minor allele frequency." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 The development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). T1DM is caused by interplay between genetic and environmental factors, and epigenetics serves as a bridge between the two.

    To date, >50 candidate loci have been identified by genome-wide association study. The genetic variants within these risk regions can be divided into common variants, low-frequency variants and rare variants according to their different minor allele frequencies. The rare and low-frequency variants are likely to have more practical value in the treatment of T1DM because their ORs are larger than those of common variants. However, as the study of rare and low-frequency variants is an emerging research field, some hypotheses are still controversial and need further investigation. LD, linkage disequilibrium.

    MAF. Minor allele frequency.Additionally, as mentioned above, most variants that confer T1DM risk are common and have modest effects, limiting the clinical application of their discovery. However, some research has suggested that rare and low-frequency variants might have larger effect sizes than common variants. Theoretically, if a disorder affects reproduction, such as an autoimmune disease with early onset, genetic variants with strong effects will be maintained at a relatively low frequency through negative selection.21 Forgetta et al applied deep imputation of genotyped data in 9358 patients with T1DM and 15 705 controls from European cohorts to identify novel rare and low-frequency variants with large effect sizes on T1DM risk.13 Three novel rare and low-frequency variants, including rs192324744 in LDL receptor-related protein 1B (LRP1B, MAF=1.3%, OR=1.63), rs60587303 in serine threonine kinase 39 (STK39, MAF=0.5%, OR=1.97) and the intergenic variant rs2128344 (MAF=0.55%, OR=2.12), were found and validated by subsequent de novo genotyping.13 Notably, the effects of these SNPs (ORs ≥1.5) are comparable to those of the lead variants in INS and PTPN22. In vitro experiments indicated that STK39 is involved in T cell activation and effector functions and that inhibition of Stk39 can augment the inflammatory response by enhancing interleukin (IL)-2 signalling.

    Therefore, STK39 may be a promising clinical intervention target.13Besides, previous study through fine mapping of known T1DM susceptible loci has identified a low-frequency variant rs34536443 (MAF=4%, OR=0.67) within tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) and a rare variant rs41295121 (MAF=1%, OR=0.49) within RNA binding motif protein 17 (RBM17, in the same locus as IL2RA).20 TYK2, belonging to Janus kinase (JAK) family, is associated with regulation of type I IFN signalling pathway. Some studies have demonstrated that rs34530443 plays protective roles in multiple autoimmune disorders and the underlying mechanisms might lie in the diminishment of IL-12, IL-23 and type I IFN signalling.73 The specific function of rs41295121 in context of autoimmunity and T1DM needs further investigation.As for some practical issues such as sample sizes and high costs, a study indicated that a well-powered rare variant association study should include discovery sets with at least 25 000 cases and a substantial replication set.44 There are some alternative methods to decrease the sample sizes or costs in the context of T1DM. For example, combined analysis of rare variants within a T1DM-associated gene or region can lead to substantial reduction of required sample sizes. In addition, preferential selection of individuals with extreme phenotype on the basis of known risk factors, including age of disease onset, family history of diabetes and diabetic auto-antibodies, can also improve the association power because rare variants might be enriched among them.74Overall, among the identified T1DM loci, the candidate genes with rare or low-frequency variants include TYK2, IFIH1, RBM17, PTPN22, STK39 and LRP1B.13 20 22 23 Many unidentified variants may remain to be dissected, because studies focused on other diseases suggest that rare and low-frequency variants account for the majority of all variants.27 75ConclusionDriven by advancements in sequencing technologies, there has been great improvement in the identification of rare and low-frequency variants that cause complex human diseases, such as T1DM. The benefits of this field can be stated as follows.

    (1) characterisation of rare and low-frequency variants may lead to a full understanding of the genetic component of this disorder. (2) detection of rare and low-frequency variants can pinpoint the genes that are actually responsible for increased T1DM risk within the loci identified by GWAS. (3) some new candidate genes for T1DM can be found due to enhanced power to discover rare variants. (4) rare and low-frequency variants are expected to make a significant contribution to human phenotypes and disease susceptibility because some studies indicate the majority of protein-coding variants tend to be evolutionarily recent and rare54. (5) accumulated evidence indicates that rare and low-frequency variants have larger phenotypic effects than common variants, suggesting that they will offer more actionable clinical targets and hold tremendous promise in predictive and personalised medicine.However, some issues remain to be addressed.

    First, controversy persists about the importance of rare and low-frequency variants in common diseases. Encouragingly, recent studies have found that some such variants, such as rs60587303 in STK39, indeed have larger effect sizes than common variants in the pathogenesis of T1DM. Second, the candidate genes for T1DM that have rare or low-frequency variants included only TYK2, RBM17, IFIH1, PTPN22, STK39 and LRP1B, which means there may still be many unidentified variants. Moreover, most studies in this field have examined European populations. However, rare and low-frequency variants are geographically localised and population specific.

    In particular, the heritable background of T1DM varies among different ethnic groups. These facts will limit the practical application of rare and low-frequency variants.In conclusion, the identification of rare and low-frequency genetic variants will provide new insights into the pathophysiology of T1DM and offer new potential drug targets in the post-GWAS era, despite the many challenges and uncertainties remaining in this field.AbstractAccurate classification of variants in cancer susceptibility genes (CSGs) is key for correct estimation of cancer risk and management of patients. Consistency in the weighting assigned to individual elements of evidence has been much improved by the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) 2015 framework for variant classification, UK Association for Clinical Genomic Science (UK-ACGS) Best Practice Guidelines and subsequent Cancer Variant Interpretation Group UK (CanVIG-UK) consensus specification for CSGs. However, considerable inconsistency persists regarding practice in the combination of evidence elements. CanVIG-UK is a national subspecialist multidisciplinary network for cancer susceptibility genomic variant interpretation, comprising clinical scientist and clinical geneticist representation from each of the 25 diagnostic laboratories/clinical genetic units across the UK and Republic of Ireland.

    Here, we summarise the aggregated evidence elements and combinations possible within different variant classification schemata currently employed for CSGs (ACMG, UK-ACGS, CanVIG-UK and ClinGen gene-specific guidance for PTEN, TP53 and CDH1). We present consensus recommendations from CanVIG-UK regarding (1) consistent scoring for combinations of evidence elements using a validated numerical ‘exponent score’ (2) new combinations of evidence elements constituting likely pathogenic’ and ‘pathogenic’ classification categories, (3) which evidence elements can and cannot be used in combination for specific variant types and (4) classification of variants for which there are evidence elements for both pathogenicity and benignity.geneticsgenomicsgenetic testinggeneticsmedicalgenetic variationhttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See. Https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/..

    IntroductionCurrently, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is defined as an autoimmune disorder classically characterised by pancreatic islet beta-cell destruction triggered by autoreactive T cells, resulting in subsequent severe insulin deficiency and lifelong reliance on exogenous insulin.1 2 This autoimmune diabetes accounts for 5%–19% of viagra prices walmart diabetes and buy generic viagra online represents the main form of diabetes in children and adolescents.3 Its incidence is increasing worldwide at a rate of 2%–5% per year.4 This rising incidence and multiple severe diabetic complications lead to increased mortality and morbidity and aggravate the economic burden of the disease. It is accepted that the interplay between genetic factors and environmental precipitators, including ancestry and geographic location, viral and bacterial s, vitamin D, hygiene and microbiota, leads to specific tissue inflammation, namely, insulitis, insulin-producing cell death and consequent clinical disease.5–9The genetic component of T1DM can be demonstrated by the fact that siblings and offspring of patients with T1DM have a higher risk than the general population, and disease concordance in identical twins is higher than that in dizygotic twins.10 11 Over the past few years, genome-wide association study (GWAS), which measures and analyses a million or more DNA sequence variations in known linkage regions in unrelated individuals, have identified at least 58 susceptible loci combined with linkage analysis and candidate gene studies (figure 1).12–14 Most of the identified variants are common (minor allele frequency (MAF) >5%) and have modest effects (OR <1.5), although the effects of susceptibility genes such as human leucocyte antigen (HLA), insulin (INS) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) are stronger (figure 1).13 The HLA region (OR >6), located on human chromosome 6p21 and identified by linkage analysis, accounts for the largest proportion of T1DM heritability and explains approximately 50% of genetic T1DM risk.15 In addition to HLA, variants within buy generic viagra online the INS and PTPN22 loci, which were first identified by candidate gene studies, have larger effect sizes (OR >2) than other variants.13 The INS gene on human chromosome 11p15.5 offers the next strongest genetic risk association with T1DM after HLA and accounts for approximately 10% of genetic susceptibility to T1DM.16 It is believed that ‘missing heritability’ can be at least partially elucidated by rare and low-frequency variants (rare variants defined as variants with MAF ≤1% and low-frequency variants defined as variants with MAF=1%–5%), and some findings have indicated that rare variants have larger effect sizes than common variants.17–19 From an evolutionary standpoint, risk variants with higher penetrance are more likely to be rare due to negative selection. Taking an extreme example, monogenic/Mendelian disorders such as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type I are caused by rare variants with large effect sizes and high buy generic viagra online penetrance. Intriguingly, recent and previous studies focusing on the identification of rare and low-frequency variants involved in T1DM have found a handful of such variants, and some of them do have large effect sizes.13 20–23Candidate genes or loci of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and their ORs (the yellow bars represent the rare and low-frequency genetic variants of T1DM).76–79 " data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Candidate genes or loci of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and their ORs (the yellow bars represent the rare and low-frequency genetic variants of T1DM).76–79However, some studies suggest that most rare variants have only small or modest effects.24 Therefore, it remains to be seen whether the tendency of rare and low-frequency variants to have large effects is a universal phenomenon.

    Even though its practical value in clinical medicine may be restricted if the hypothesis that most rare variants have only buy generic viagra online a small effect is true, there is still intrinsic value in this field. Such studies can lead to the buy generic viagra online discovery of new candidate genes implicated in disorders or human phenotypes25 and determine causal genes in candidate regions identified by GWAS. Other than understanding better its pathophysiology, new loci could lead to the identification of new biomarkers or represent drug targets for T1DM.Identifying rare and low-frequency variantsRecently, advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technologies as well as bioinformatic tools and methods to process and analyse the resulting data have enhanced the ability of researchers to find rare variants, and the decreasing cost of these technologies has made it feasible to apply them to related studies (table 1).26 The most comprehensive approach is high-depth whole-genome sequencing (WGS) due to its excellent coverage. However, high costs and multiple computational challenges have restricted its application.21 In addition buy generic viagra online to WGS with high or low depth, SNP-array genome-wide genotyping and imputation has been used to identify rare variants.

    Notably, current sequencing depth (especially 30x) of WGS is likely to miss at least some coding variants as compared with whole-exome sequencing (WES, especially >100x).View this table:Table 1 buy generic viagra online Technologies and study designs for detecting rare variantsThere are some lower-cost alternatives as well. First, a combination of low-depth WGS and imputation is another choice. Imputation is a statistical method that can buy generic viagra online determine genotypes that are not directly detected by taking advantage of various previously sequenced reference panels. For instance, Martínez-Bueno and Alarcón-Riquelme identified rare variants that were buy generic viagra online jointly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) within 98 SLE candidate genes by applying genome-wide imputation and other techniques.27 Notably, some studies have indicated that the newer imputation panels, such as the recent Haplotype Reference Consortium panel and the combined UK10K and 1000 Genomes projects phase III, provide better quality of imputation for rare variants compared with early panel, such as the UK10K, which underlines the significance and potential of larger reference panels to impute rare variants.28 29 Nevertheless, the power of imputation for identifying rare variants is attenuated because its accuracy decreases with decreasing MAF.

    Additionally, studies have indicated that the utility of population-specific panels leads to improved imputation accuracy of rare variants.30 Therefore, the utilisation of imputation is relatively limited in non-European populations because of the lack of ethnicity-specific reference cohorts.Second, using WES finds rare variants within protein-coding regions. Given the reality that only an exceedingly small portion of the human genome is buy generic viagra online coding sequence and the functions of protein-coding variants are more easily interpreted, WES is considered a cost-effective technique for discovering rare variants. However, an obvious defect is that WES ignores non-coding regions, buy generic viagra online which account for 98% of the human genome. Moreover, most loci identified by GWAS are located in non-coding regions, and evidence indicates that these regions play critical roles in complex disorders and have significant biological functions.31 32Third, targeted sequencing investigates a specific part of the genome, including candidate genes identified by previous studies and clinically significant genes.

    For instance, Rivas et al identified a protein-truncating variant of the gene RNF186 that can exert a protective effect against ulcerative colitis via changed localisation and decreased expression by conducting targeted sequencing in regions previously buy generic viagra online associated with inflammatory bowel disease. They found that this loss-of-function variant was a promising therapeutic target.33 However, some targeted sequencing studies have failed to detect rare risk variants, indicating the deficiency of this method in discovering rare and low-frequency variants.24 34In addition, burden tests, which collapse information for multiple variants into a buy generic viagra online single genetic score and analyse the association between the score and disease characteristic, are a common approach in genomics to potentialise identification of rare variants, because aggregating analysis of variants within a gene can improve the power to detect statistical signals between case and control subjects. For example, a study analysed WES data from 393 patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) against 123 136 control subjects from public sequencing database, and identified a significant burden in TYRO3, a candidate gene implicated in IHH in mouse models.35 However, this gene-based burden testing approach will lose power when effects of variants are not in the same direction or the causal variants only account for a small fraction.36Traditional genetic studies have focused mostly on DNA sequences collected from unrelated individuals. However, a variety of new study designs have been applied to finding rare variants with the goal of decreasing sample sizes and buy generic viagra online costs.

    The common feature of these designs, including extreme phenotype sampling, population isolates and family studies (table 1), is that they improve the power of rare variant testing by selecting a specific population.37–39Challenges for identifying rare buy generic viagra online and low-frequency variantsThe detection and analysis of rare and low-frequency variants constitute a rising research field, but this field has encountered substantial obstacles and challenges. First, the statistical analysis of rare and low-frequency variants is far more complicated and difficult than the analysis of common variants. For example, because the number of rare variants is greater than the number of common variants, the significance threshold or p value established for GWAS is not appropriate for rare variant association studies.40 The linkage disequilibrium (LD) r2 between two rare variants or a common variant and a rare variant cannot be accurately calculated, and as such it is difficult to define if novel rare buy generic viagra online variants are independent from known rare or common variants.41 42 A variety of traditional methods used to reduce or eliminate confounding factors and population stratification, such as linear mixed effect models and principal components analysis, are not applicable to the analysis of rare and low-frequency variants because rare variants and the distribution of disease risk are strictly localised. A study indicates buy generic viagra online that the estimated ancestry scores can be used to control the population stratification if the pool of control is large.

    Also, off-targeted read might be applied for controlling population stratification in targeted sequencing.43 Moreover, because these variants are rare, the strategy used to analyse common variants, which is based on analysing a single variant at a time, is underpowered to detect rare variants and can do so only if the effect size or sample size is exceedingly large.44 Thus, alternative methods have been developed to analyse the aggregate effect of rare variants.45–47 These methods, such as burden tests, variance component test and exponential combination tests, evaluate association for multiple variants in a gene or a biologically region. Combined analysis of genetic association data with other biological information, such as methylation, gene expression and buy generic viagra online biological pathways, can also leads to substantial gain In the statistical power of rare variants studies.48–50Second, it still remains challenging to apply genetic information obtained by rare variants association studies to diagnostic and prognostic medicine because some healthy individuals carry deleterious variants. For example, Flannick et al found that a large portion of the general population carries low-frequency non-synonymous mutations that can change the length or sequence of coding proteins in maturity-onset diabetes of young genes, and these carriers remain normoglycaemic through middle age.51 In addition, Bick et al discovered that rare variants in sarcomere protein genes could boost the risk of adverse cardiovascular events buy generic viagra online in Framingham Heart Study participants, and more surprisingly, a large number of non-synonymous variants, including nonsense, missense and splice variants, are present in healthy populations.52 Therefore, the functional validation of rare and low-frequency genetic variants is necessary to determine the causality in genotype-phenotype analysis.Third, many rare and low-frequency variants are geographically localised and population specific, so it is difficult to find suitable replication panels and generate a common population. Nelson et al sequenced 202 drug target genes in coding regions in 14 002 people and found that 95% of observed variants are rare and at least 74% are detected in only one or two individuals.53 Similarly, a study conducted in 2440 individuals of African and European ancestry found that 86% of over 500 000 variants identified are rare, and most are previously unknown.54 Notably, these studies indicate that the vast majority of rare variant allelic spectra are unique to their sample sets and need to be identified by direct resequencing.Finally, although some detection studies of rare and low-frequency variants, such as WES and data processing software, are relatively standardised, many aspects of this emerging field, including WES capture technologies and even the definition of rare variants, still do not have uniform standards.

    Therefore, combining data generated from different groups is problematic.Benefits of identifying rare buy generic viagra online and low-frequency variantsIt has been suggested that rare and low-frequency variants account for a large proportion of the genetic variation in the human genome represented by the 1000 Genomes Project.55 56 Although a substantial number of SNPs have been identified by GWAS, there is still a so-called ‘missing heritability’ phenomenon in complex disorders.57 For instance, GWAS have identified >80 common variants with small effect sizes for T2DM, which can explain only 10% of the total heritability.58 To address this issue, several hypotheses have been proposed, and great technological advances have provided a better understanding of the genetic architecture of common diseases over the past several years. Rare and low-frequency variants can influence both susceptibility to buy generic viagra online common complex diseases and their phenotypes (table 2).59–62 For example, researchers performed WGS in 1038 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, a rare disorder characterised by occlusion of arterioles in the lung) cases and 6385 control subjects and make the total proportion of cases explained by mutations increased to 23.5% from previously established 19.9% by incorporating novel rare variants and genes identified.63 Also, a study indicated that rare variants of SLC22A12 gene influence urate reabsorption and the heritability explained by these SLC22A12 variants exceeds 10%, indicating that rare functional variants make substantial contribution to the ‘missing heritability’ of serum urate level.64 In fact, a ‘common disease-rare variant model’ that assumes rare variants with high penetrance may be involved in increased complex disease risk has been proposed.59 65 It is obvious that great genetic heterogeneity exists under this model. Intriguingly, in line with this model, some autoimmune diseases, such as T1DM, are extremely heterogeneous.View this table:Table 2 Rare and low-frequency variants associated with T1DM, T2DM and other autoimmune diseasesBesides rare and low-frequency genetic variants, there are some other hypotheses to explain the ‘missing heritability’.59 For example, empirical and theoretical analyses have indicated that multiple genetic variants with small effects are missed because GWAS are underpowered to capture these variants, therefore, taking into account genetic variants with smaller effects that do not reach significance will contribute to disease susceptibility and phenotype variability. Additionally, structural variants, such as CNV, are poorly studied owing to insufficient coverage on SNP chips.66 The presence of gene-gene (epistasis) and gene-environmental interactions may buy generic viagra online also contribute to the ‘missing heritability’.67In addition, the candidate regions identified by GWAS sometimes harbour several different genes.

    Identifying rare genetic variants is helpful to pinpoint causal genes within the loci identified by GWAS.68 Moreover, the identification of rare and low-frequency variants may result in the identification of new candidate genes.40 For instance, researchers identified a heterozygote truncating mutation within CLCN1 gene by performing WES in patients with statin-associated myopathy and therefore, determined a novel candidate gene of this disease.69 Additionally, it has been suggested that rare variants are likely to have appeared more recently than common variants, leading to reduced buy generic viagra online LD and making them more easily interpretable than common variants.21Moreover, early studies have indicated that rare and low-frequency genetic variants may have larger effects on complex disease phenotypes and susceptibility than common variants.70 Therefore, it is helpful to reveal the genetic pathways underlying diseases and to provide clinically actionable targets for personalised medicine. As an example, Roth et al found that rare and low-frequency genetic variants with large phenotypic effects within the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) gene, which encodes products that bind to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and increase its degradation, can lower the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by reducing the circulating level of LDL cholesterol.71 Based on this research, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting PCSK9 has been proven to increase LDL receptor recycling and decrease LDL cholesterol level.72 These findings provide a new treatment and prevention strategy for hypercholesterolaemia and CHD and offer inspiration for the transformation of genetic discoveries into clinical practice.Rare and low-frequency variants and T1DMFocusing on autoimmune diabetes, fully understanding the genetic factors underlying T1DM is beneficial for revealing its pathophysiology, discovering new drug targets and developing predictive and personalised medicine (figure 2). It is especially vital and valuable because T1DM is buy generic viagra online extremely complex and heterogeneous. The candidate T1DM loci identified by GWAS sometimes contain several distinct genes, and strong LD makes it difficult buy generic viagra online to pinpoint the precise causative genes in genomic regions.

    In addition, the fact that many SNPs reside in non-coding regions or do not have obvious functional effects offers few clues to ascertain the causative genes. However, the discovery of rare buy generic viagra online and low-frequency disease-associated variants is helpful for T1DM candidate gene identification. The T1DM-associated buy generic viagra online region on human chromosome 2q24 harbours interferon (IFN) induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1), GCA, FAP and part of KCNH7. The interaction between IFIH1 and double-stranded RNA, a byproduct of viral replication, leads to the secretion of IFNs.

    While IFIH1 is a plausible susceptibility gene buy generic viagra online on the basis of its biological function, there is no direct evidence to indicate which of these genes in this locus is responsible for increased T1DM risk. Nejentsev et al resequenced the exons and splice sites of 10 candidate genes in pools of DNA from 480 patients and 480 controls and discovered 4 rare or low-frequency variants (OR=0.51–0.74, MAF <3%) with low LD within buy generic viagra online IFIH1 that could change the structure or expression of its product, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 and protect against T1DM.23 This finding suggests that IFIH1 is the disease-causing gene. Moreover, Ge et al found several rare deleterious variants, including two novel frameshift mutations (ss538819444 and ss37186329) and two missense mutations (rs74163663 and rs56048322) within PTPN22 by deeply sequencing the protein-coding regions of 301 genes in 49 loci previously identified by GWAS in 70 T1DM cases of European ancestry.22 This finding further confirmed that PTPN22 is a T1DM candidate gene on chromosome 1p13.2. Subsequent genotyping in buy generic viagra online 3609 families with T1DM indicated rs56048322 (MAF=0.87%), which leads to the production of two alternative PTPN22 transcripts and a novel isoform of its encoding protein, LYP, through affecting splicing of PTPN22, was significantly associated with T1DM independent of T1DM-associated common variant rs2476601.

    Functional analysis buy generic viagra online showed this isoform of LYP can cause hyporesponsiveness of CD4+ T cell to antigen stimulation in patients with T1DM.50 candidate loci have been identified by genome-wide association study. The genetic variants within these risk regions can be divided into common variants, low-frequency variants and rare variants according to their different minor allele frequencies. The rare buy generic viagra online and low-frequency variants are likely to have more practical value in the treatment of T1DM because their ORs are larger than those of common variants. However, as the study of rare and low-frequency variants is an emerging research field, some hypotheses buy generic viagra online are still controversial and need further investigation.

    LD, linkage disequilibrium. MAF. Minor allele frequency." class="highwire-fragment fragment-images colorbox-load" rel="gallery-fragment-images-147880047" data-figure-caption="The development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). T1DM is caused by interplay between genetic and environmental factors, and epigenetics serves as a bridge between the two.

    To date, >50 candidate loci have been identified by genome-wide association study. The genetic variants within these risk regions can be divided into common variants, low-frequency variants and rare variants according to their different minor allele frequencies. The rare and low-frequency variants are likely to have more practical value in the treatment of T1DM because their ORs are larger than those of common variants. However, as the study of rare and low-frequency variants is an emerging research field, some hypotheses are still controversial and need further investigation.

    LD, linkage disequilibrium. MAF. Minor allele frequency." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 The development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). T1DM is caused by interplay between genetic and environmental factors, and epigenetics serves as a bridge between the two.

    To date, >50 candidate loci have been identified by genome-wide association study. The genetic variants within these risk regions can be divided into common variants, low-frequency variants and rare variants according to their different minor allele frequencies. The rare and low-frequency variants are likely to have more practical value in the treatment of T1DM because their ORs are larger than those of common variants. However, as the study of rare and low-frequency variants is an emerging research field, some hypotheses are still controversial and need further investigation.

    LD, linkage disequilibrium. MAF. Minor allele frequency.Additionally, as mentioned above, most variants that confer T1DM risk are common and have modest effects, limiting the clinical application of their discovery. However, some research has suggested that rare and low-frequency variants might have larger effect sizes than common variants.

    Theoretically, if a disorder affects reproduction, such as an autoimmune disease with early onset, genetic variants with strong effects will be maintained at a relatively low frequency through negative selection.21 Forgetta et al applied deep imputation of genotyped data in 9358 patients with T1DM and 15 705 controls from European cohorts to identify novel rare and low-frequency variants with large effect sizes on T1DM risk.13 Three novel rare and low-frequency variants, including rs192324744 in LDL receptor-related protein 1B (LRP1B, MAF=1.3%, OR=1.63), rs60587303 in serine threonine kinase 39 (STK39, MAF=0.5%, OR=1.97) and the intergenic variant rs2128344 (MAF=0.55%, OR=2.12), were found and validated by subsequent de novo genotyping.13 Notably, the effects of these SNPs (ORs ≥1.5) are comparable to those of the lead variants in INS and PTPN22. In vitro experiments indicated that STK39 is involved in T cell activation and effector functions and that inhibition of Stk39 can augment the inflammatory response by enhancing interleukin (IL)-2 signalling. Therefore, STK39 may be a promising clinical intervention target.13Besides, previous study through fine mapping of known T1DM susceptible loci has identified a low-frequency variant rs34536443 (MAF=4%, OR=0.67) within tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) and a rare variant rs41295121 (MAF=1%, OR=0.49) within RNA binding motif protein 17 (RBM17, in the same locus as IL2RA).20 TYK2, belonging to Janus kinase (JAK) family, is associated with regulation of type I IFN signalling pathway. Some studies have demonstrated that rs34530443 plays protective roles in multiple autoimmune disorders and the underlying mechanisms might lie in the diminishment of IL-12, IL-23 and type I IFN signalling.73 The specific function of rs41295121 in context of autoimmunity and T1DM needs further investigation.As for some practical issues such as sample sizes and high costs, a study indicated that a well-powered rare variant association study should include discovery sets with at least 25 000 cases and a substantial replication set.44 There are some alternative methods to decrease the sample sizes or costs in the context of T1DM.

    For example, combined analysis of rare variants within a T1DM-associated gene or region can lead to substantial reduction of required sample sizes. In addition, preferential selection of individuals with extreme phenotype on the basis of known risk factors, including age of disease onset, family history of diabetes and diabetic auto-antibodies, can also improve the association power because rare variants might be enriched among them.74Overall, among the identified T1DM loci, the candidate genes with rare or low-frequency variants include TYK2, IFIH1, RBM17, PTPN22, STK39 and LRP1B.13 20 22 23 Many unidentified variants may remain to be dissected, because studies focused on other diseases suggest that rare and low-frequency variants account for the majority of all variants.27 75ConclusionDriven by advancements in sequencing technologies, there has been great improvement in the identification of rare and low-frequency variants that cause complex human diseases, such as T1DM. The benefits of this field can be stated as follows. (1) characterisation of rare and low-frequency variants may lead to a full understanding of the genetic component of this disorder.

    (2) detection of rare and low-frequency variants can pinpoint the genes that are actually responsible for increased T1DM risk within the loci identified by GWAS. (3) some new candidate genes for T1DM can be found due to enhanced power to discover rare variants. (4) rare and low-frequency variants are expected to make a significant contribution to human phenotypes and disease susceptibility because some studies indicate the majority of protein-coding variants tend to be evolutionarily recent and rare54. (5) accumulated evidence indicates that rare and low-frequency variants have larger phenotypic effects than common variants, suggesting that they will offer more actionable clinical targets and hold tremendous promise in predictive and personalised medicine.However, some issues remain to be addressed.

    First, controversy persists about the importance of rare and low-frequency variants in common diseases. Encouragingly, recent studies have found that some such variants, such as rs60587303 in STK39, indeed have larger effect sizes than common variants in the pathogenesis of T1DM. Second, the candidate genes for T1DM that have rare or low-frequency variants included only TYK2, RBM17, IFIH1, PTPN22, STK39 and LRP1B, which means there may still be many unidentified variants. Moreover, most studies in this field have examined European populations.

    However, rare and low-frequency variants are geographically localised and population specific. In particular, the heritable background of T1DM varies among different ethnic groups. These facts will limit the practical application of rare and low-frequency variants.In conclusion, the identification of rare and low-frequency genetic variants will provide new insights into the pathophysiology of T1DM and offer new potential drug targets in the post-GWAS era, despite the many challenges and uncertainties remaining in this field.AbstractAccurate classification of variants in cancer susceptibility genes (CSGs) is key for correct estimation of cancer risk and management of patients. Consistency in the weighting assigned to individual elements of evidence has been much improved by the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) 2015 framework for variant classification, UK Association for Clinical Genomic Science (UK-ACGS) Best Practice Guidelines and subsequent Cancer Variant Interpretation Group UK (CanVIG-UK) consensus specification for CSGs.

    However, considerable inconsistency persists regarding practice in the combination of evidence elements. CanVIG-UK is a national subspecialist multidisciplinary network for cancer susceptibility genomic variant interpretation, comprising clinical scientist and clinical geneticist representation from each of the 25 diagnostic laboratories/clinical genetic units across the UK and Republic of Ireland. Here, we summarise the aggregated evidence elements and combinations possible within different variant classification schemata currently employed for CSGs (ACMG, UK-ACGS, CanVIG-UK and ClinGen gene-specific guidance for PTEN, TP53 and CDH1). We present consensus recommendations from CanVIG-UK regarding (1) consistent scoring for combinations of evidence elements using a validated numerical ‘exponent score’ (2) new combinations of evidence elements constituting likely pathogenic’ and ‘pathogenic’ classification categories, (3) which evidence elements can and cannot be used in combination for specific variant types and (4) classification of variants for which there are evidence elements for both pathogenicity and benignity.geneticsgenomicsgenetic testinggeneticsmedicalgenetic variationhttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made.

    See. Https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/..

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    It is important to recognize, however, that most of the exercising population engages in leisure sport and solo recreational exercise and, unlike elite athletes, these individuals have a higher prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerosis and established CVD.5 The first contribution in this issue is the ‘2020 ESC Guidelines on Sports Cardiology and Exercise in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease’6 by Antonio Pelliccia from the Institute of Sport Medicine and Science in Rome, Italy, and his colleagues of the ESC Scientific Document Group. The authors note that sports cardiology is a relatively novel and emerging specialty area, therefore the evidence base for the natural history of disease progression or risk of what exactly does viagra do death during intensive exercise and competitive sport among individuals with CVD is relatively sparse. This is reflected by the fact that a disproportionately large number of recommendations are reliant on the wisdom and vast experience of the consensus group rather than on large prospective studies.

    The authors acknowledge the inherent difficulties in formulating recommendations for all scenarios in a heterogeneous population with a diverse spectrum of CVDs what exactly does viagra do in light of the limited availability of evidence. Therefore, these recommendations should not be considered as legally binding and should not discourage individual physicians from practising outside the remit of this document, based on their clinical experience in sports cardiology. In addition, in what exactly does viagra do line with good clinical practice, the present document encourages shared decision-making with the athlete patient and respects the autonomy of the individual after provision of detailed information about the impact of sports and the potential risks of complications and/or adverse events.

    The current Guidelines also provide recommendations on the investigation, risk assessment, and management of patients with CVDs to aid physicians when prescribing exercise programmes or providing advice for participation in sports.While deep vein thrombosis of the leg following airplane travel, the so-called economy class syndrome, received much attention years ago, now a report on internal jugular vein thrombosis in astronauts in space has startled the space medical community.7 In a Current Opinion article entitled ‘The thrombotic risk of spaceflight. Has a serious problem been overlooked for more than what exactly does viagra do half of a century?. €™, Ulrich Limper from the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Cologne, Germany, and colleagues discuss this topic.8 Small cell, animal, and human studies performed in ground-based models and in actual weightlessness have revealed an influence of weightlessness and gravity on the blood coagulation system.

    However, human what exactly does viagra do study populations were small and limited to carefully selected participants. Evidence in individuals with medical conditions and in older persons is lacking. Evidence for thrombotic risk in what exactly does viagra do spaceflight is unsatisfactory.

    This topic deserves rapid study in heterogeneous populations to guarantee safe governmental and touristic human spaceflight.CVD and cancer remain the leading causes of death. Although the what exactly does viagra do epidemiology, pathobiology, and treatment of each of these diseases have been the focus of intensive study for decades, the intersection has only recently gained broader interest. There is increasing recognition that common shared risk factors predispose patients to both CVD and cancer.

    In addition, cancer and traditional cancer what exactly does viagra do therapies are associated with CVD. Conversely, recent intriguing data suggest that CVD (e.g. Heart failure) may stimulate tumour growth.

    Novel targeted therapies and their association with hypertension, arterial events, metabolic syndrome, and myocarditis all add complexity to the what exactly does viagra do relationship between cancer and CVD.9 In a clinical research manuscript entitled ‘Long-term cardiovascular disease mortality among 160 834 five-year survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer. An American population-based cohort study’, Lai Wang and colleagues assessed the risk of CVD mortality in US 5-year survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer compared with that of the general population and contemporaneous 5-year survivors of childhood cancer.10 A total of 160 834 five-year AYA cancer survivors (aged 15–39 years at diagnosis) were included, representing 2 239 390 person-years of follow-up. Overall, 2910 CVD deaths occurred, which was 1.4-fold more that expected in the general population, corresponding to 3.6 excess CVD deaths per 10 what exactly does viagra do 000 person-years (Figure 1).

    The highest risk of cardiac mortality was experienced after Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and the highest risk of cerebrovascular mortality was observed with central nervous system (CNS) tumours. Even in survivors in their sixth and seventh decades of life, the risk of CVD mortality remained what exactly does viagra do markedly higher than that of the matched general population. Competing risk analysis showed that the cumulative mortality of CVD was elevated among AYA cancer survivors compared with childhood cancer survivors during the whole study period.

    Figure 1Cumulative mortality of heart disease among 5-year survivors of adolescent and young what exactly does viagra do adult cancer and childhood cancer according to time since diagnosis by (A) sex, (B) ethnicity, and (C) lymphoma subtypes (from Lai Wang, Fengjiao Wang, Lianyu Chen, Yawen Geng, Shulin Yu, and Zhen Chen, Long-term cardiovascular disease mortality among 160 834 5-year survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer. An American population-based cohort study. See pages 101–109).Figure 1Cumulative mortality of heart disease among 5-year survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer and childhood cancer according to time since diagnosis by (A) sex, (B) ethnicity, and (C) lymphoma subtypes (from Lai Wang, Fengjiao Wang, Lianyu Chen, Yawen Geng, Shulin Yu, and Zhen Chen, Long-term cardiovascular disease mortality among 160 834 5-year survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer what exactly does viagra do.

    An American population-based cohort study. See pages 101–109).The authors conclude that long-term AYA cancer survivors have a greater risk of CVD mortality than the US general population and what exactly does viagra do childhood cancer survivors. Vulnerable subgroups, especially survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma and CNS tumours, require continued close follow-up care for cardiovascular conditions throughout survivorship.

    The manuscript is accompanied by an Editorial by Patrizio Lancellotti from the University Hospital of Liège in Belgium and colleagues.11 The authors note that despite the many unknowns, the present study represents a valuable contribution to the identification of at-risk patient groups requiring what exactly does viagra do close follow-up care, as well as to the understanding of a major health issue.Systemic vascular inflammation plays multiple maladaptive roles which contribute to the progression and destabilization of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).12,13 In a state of the art review entitled ‘Targeting cardiovascular inflammation. Next steps in clinical translation’, Patrick R. Lawler from what exactly does viagra do the University of Toronto in Canada, and colleagues note that these roles include.

    (i) driving atheroprogression in the clinically stable phase of disease. (ii) inciting atheroma destabilization and precipitating acute what exactly does viagra do coronary syndromes (ACS). And (iii) responding to cardiomyocyte necrosis in myocardial infarction (MI).14 Despite an evolving understanding of these biological processes, successful clinical translation into effective therapies has proven challenging.

    Realizing the promise of targeting inflammation in the prevention and treatment of ASCVD will be what exactly does viagra do likely to require more individualized approaches, as the degree of inflammation differs among cardiovascular patients. A large body of evidence has accumulated supporting the use of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a clinical measure of inflammation. Appreciating the mechanistic diversity of ACS triggers and the kinetics of what exactly does viagra do hsCRP in MI may resolve purported inconsistencies from prior observational studies.

    Future clinical trial designs incorporating hsCRP may hold promise to enable individualized approaches. The aim what exactly does viagra do of this Clinical Review is to summarize the current understanding of how inflammation contributes to ASCVD progression, destabilization, and adverse clinical outcomes. The authors offer a forward-looking perspective on what next steps may enable successful clinical translation into effective therapeutic approaches—enabling targeting the right patients with the right therapy at the right time—on the road to more individualized ASCVD care (Figure 2).

    Figure 2Key what exactly does viagra do contemporary residual risk pathways in secondary prevention. *In addition to standard evidence-based therapies, more aggressive blood pressure targets may be considered. (from Patrick R.

    Lawler, Deepak what exactly does viagra do L. Bhatt, Lucas C. Godoy, Thomas F what exactly does viagra do.

    Lüscher, Robert O. Bonow, Subodh Verma, and Paul M Ridker, Targeting what exactly does viagra do cardiovascular inflammation. Next steps in clinical translation.

    See pages 113–131.)Figure 2Key contemporary residual risk pathways in secondary prevention what exactly does viagra do. *In addition to standard evidence-based therapies, more aggressive blood pressure targets may be considered. (from Patrick R what exactly does viagra do.

    Lawler, Deepak L. Bhatt, Lucas C what exactly does viagra do. Godoy, Thomas F.

    Lüscher, Robert what exactly does viagra do O. Bonow, Subodh Verma, and Paul M Ridker, Targeting cardiovascular inflammation. Next steps in clinical translation what exactly does viagra do.

    See pages 113–131.)The issue is also complemented by Discussion Forum contributions. In a contribution entitled ‘Time for clinicians to revisit their perspectives on C-statistic’, Arya Aminorroaya from the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran and colleagues what exactly does viagra do comment on the recent publication ‘Feasibility of using deep learning to detect coronary artery disease based on facial photo’ by Shen Lin from the Peking Union Medical College in China, and colleagues.15,16 Lin et al. Respond in a separate comment.17The editors hope that readers of this issue of the European Heart Journal will find it of interest.With thanks to Amelia Meier-Batschelet, Johanna Huggler, and Martin Meyer for help with compilation of this article.

    References1Copat C, Cristaldi A, Fiore M, Grasso A, Zuccarello P, Santo Signorelli S, Conti GO, Ferrante M what exactly does viagra do. The role of air pollution (PM and NO2) in erectile dysfunction treatment spread and lethality. A systematic what exactly does viagra do review.

    Environ Res 2020;191:110129.2Münzel T, Sørensen M, Gori T, Schmidt FP, Rao X, Brook J, Chen LC, Brook RD, Rajagopalan S. Environmental stressors and what exactly does viagra do cardio-metabolic disease. Part I—epidemiologic evidence supporting a role for noise and air pollution and effects of mitigation strategies.

    Eur Heart J 2017;38:550–556.3Pelliccia A, Fagard R, Bjørnstad HH, Anastassakis A, Arbustini E, Assanelli D, Biffi A, Borjesson M, Carrè F, Corrado D. Recommendations for competitive what exactly does viagra do sports participation in athletes with cardiovascular disease. A consensus document from the Study Group of Sports Cardiology of the Working Group of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology and the Working Group of Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Eur Heart J 2005;26:1422–1445.4Pelliccia A, Solberg EE, Papadakis M, Adami PE, what exactly does viagra do Biffi A, Caselli S, La Gerche A, Niebauer J, Pressler A, Schmied CM. Recommendations for participation in competitive and leisure time sport in athletes with cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, and pericarditis. Position statement what exactly does viagra do of the Sport Cardiology Section of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC).

    Eur Heart J 2019;40:19–33.5Gasperetti A, James CA, Cerrone M, Delmar M, Calkins H, Duru F. Arrhythmias right ventricular cardiomyopathy and what exactly does viagra do sports activity. From molecular pathways in diseased hearts to new insights into the athletic heart mimicry.

    Eur Heart J 2020;doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa821.6Pelliccia A, Sharma S, Gati S, Bäck what exactly does viagra do M, Börjesson M, Caselli S, Collet J-P, Corrado D, Drezner JA, Halle M. 2020 ESC Guidelines on sports cardiology and exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease. The Task Force what exactly does viagra do on sports cardiology and exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

    Eur Heart J 2021;42:5–15.7Auñón-Chancellor SM, Pattarini JM, Moll S, Sargsyan A. Venous thrombosis what exactly does viagra do during spaceflight. N Engl J Med 2020;382:89–90.8Limper U, Tank J, Ahnert T, Maegele M, Grottke O, Hein M, Jordan J.

    The thrombotic risk what exactly does viagra do of spaceflight. Has a serious problem been overlooked for more than half of a century?. Eur Heart J 2021;42:97–100.9Kondapalli L, Moslehi what exactly does viagra do J, Bonaca MP.

    Inflammation begets inflammation. Cancer and what exactly does viagra do acute MI. Eur Heart J 2020;41:2194–2196.10Wang L, Wang F, Chen L, Geng Y, Yu S, Chen Z.

    Long-term cardiovascular disease mortality among 160 834 five-year survivors of what exactly does viagra do adolescent and young adult cancer. An American population-based cohort study. Eur Heart J 2021;42:101–109.11Lancellotti what exactly does viagra do P, Nguyen Trung M-L, Oury C, Moonen M.

    Cancer and cardiovascular mortality risk. Is the what exactly does viagra do die cast?. Eur Heart J 2021;42:110–112.12Liberale L, Montecucco F, Tardif J-C, Libby P, Camici GG.

    Inflamm-ageing. The role of inflammation in age-dependent cardiovascular disease what exactly does viagra do. Eur Heart J 2020;41:2974–2982.13Stojanović SD, Fiedler J, Bauersachs J, Thum T, Sedding DG.

    Senescence-induced inflammation what exactly does viagra do. An important player and key therapeutic target in atherosclerosis. Eur Heart J 2020;41:2983–2996.14Lawler PR, Bhatt DL, Godoy LC, Lüscher TF, Bonow what exactly does viagra do RO, Verma S, Ridker PM.

    Targeting cardiovascular inflammation. Next steps in clinical what exactly does viagra do translation. Eur Heart J 2021;42:113–131.15Aminorroaya A, Tajdini M, Masoudkabir F.

    Time for what exactly does viagra do clinicians to revisit their perspectives on C-statistic. Eur Heart J 2021;42:132–133.16Lin S, Li Z, Fu B, Chen S, Li X, Wang Y, Wang X, Lv B, Xu B, Song X. Feasibility of using deep learning to detect coronary artery disease based on facial photo what exactly does viagra do.

    Eur Heart J 2020;41:4400–4411.17Lin S, Chen S, Zhe Z. Model assessment what exactly does viagra do. New measures should be known and traditional measures should be accurately interpreted.

    Eur Heart what exactly does viagra do J 2021;42:134–135. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved what exactly does viagra do.

    © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please what exactly does viagra do email. Journals.permissions@oup.com.The results of “Effect of Finerenone on Chronic Kidney Disease Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes” have been published in the New England Journal of Medicine (DOI.

    10.1056/NEJMoa2025845)Key pointsFinerenone in Reducing Kidney Failure and Disease Progression in Diabetic Kidney Disease (FIDELIO-DKD), an industry-promoted phase what exactly does viagra do 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial investigated the long-term effects on renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes of finerenone, a non-steroidal, selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic kidney disease (CKD).The overall population included 5734 eligible patients with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UAC) between 30 and 300 mg/g, an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 25 to <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 of body surface area and diabetic retinopathy, or—in the presence of UAC of 300 to 5000 mg/g—an eGFR of 25 to <75 mL/min/1.73 m2.When added to standard treatment (including a max dose of a renin-angiotensin system blocker), finerenone (10 mg or 20 mg according to renal function) was shown to be superior to placebo with respect to the primary composite outcome, assessed in a time-to-event analysis, of kidney failure, a sustained decrease of at least 40% in the eGFR from baseline, or death from renal causes [hazard ratio (HR) 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–0.93. P = 0.001) during a median follow-up of 2.6 years. Finerenone also reduced the incidence of the key secondary composite outcome of death from CV causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke, what exactly does viagra do or hospitalization for heart failure (HF) (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75–0.99.

    P = 0.003).The incidence of serious adverse events did not differ significantly between finerenone and placebo. However, overall hyperkalaemia-related adverse events were twice as frequent with finerenone as with placebo (18.3% and 9.0%, respectively) and the frequency of hyperkalaemia leading to discontinuation was also higher with finerenone than placebo (2.3% vs. 0.9%).

    CommentThe rationale for the FIDELIO-DKD trial1 relies on the observation that CKD is often associated with mild hyperaldosteronism which, through mineralocorticoid receptors distributed in the distal tubule and other structures of the kidney, exerts pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic actions and contributes to the progression of renal damage. However, in order to translate the positive and promising findings of FIDELIO-CKD into clinical practice, a more detailed analysis of the impact of finerenone on individual outcomes, as well as of the persisting and potentially harmful side-effects of MRA reported in this study, are needed.First, while finerenone was superior compared to placebo in reducing the primary composite outcome, when the individual components of the endpoint were analysed separately, the incidence of kidney failure was not significantly different in the finerenone and placebo groups (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.72–1.05) and the impact on the composite endpoint was largely driven by a sustained decrease of ≥40% in eGFR from baseline (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.72–0.92).Secondly, with regard to the individual CV components of the key secondary composite outcome, finerenone had only statistically uncertain effects on death from CV causes (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.68–1.08), non-fatal MI (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.58–1.09), non-fatal stroke (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.76–1.38), hospitalization for HF (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.68–1.08), death from any cause (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.75–1.07), and hospitalization for any cause (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.88–1.02).Finally, the higher incidence of hyperkalaemia and of withdrawals and hospitalizations due to hyperkalaemia observed with finerenone compared to placebo continues to be an issue of particular concern, mostly in patients with CKD and may represent an important barrier to its clinical use.Another relevant contemporary issue is when and in which patients to consider finerenone. When compared to the results of the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial2 with the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i), canagliflozin, the magnitude of the benefits achieved with finerenone in terms of CKD progression (−18%) was less impressive than in CREDENCE (−30%).

    Differences in the populations of these trials may have contributed to a different effect size of the intervention since CREDENCE excluded patients who received MRA and those with eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, whereas FIDELIO-CKD enrolled patients treated SGLT2i (about 7%) and those with a worse renal function (>25 mL/min/1.73 m2), but did not include those affected by HF with reduced ejection fraction.It is possible that a subpopulation of patients with T2D and CKD may benefit more from finerenone than suggested by the overall effect size. Although it was previously demonstrated that aldosterone levels are inversely proportional to eGFR in patients with CKD, the study was clearly not powered to reliably assess the benefits of finerenone in relation to baseline renal function.Additional information on the efficacy and safety of finerenone in patients with T2D and less advanced CKD will be provided by the Finerenone in Reducing Cardiovascular Mortality and Morbidity in Diabetic Kidney Disease (FIGARO-DKD) trial.3 Supplementary materialSupplementary material is available at European Heart Journal online.Conflict of interest. M.V.

    Reports personal fees for speaker bureau and/or consulting in Advisory Board from Amgen, Astra Zeneca, Daiichi-Sankyo, Menarini Int, MSD, Novartis Pharma, Novo Nordisk outside the submitted work. C.P. Reports personal fees from Acticor Biotech, personal fees from Amgen, personal fees from Bayer, personal fees from GlaxoSmithKline, personal fees from Tremeau, personal fees from Zambon, grants from AIFA (Italian Drug Agency), grants from European Commission, other from Scientific Advisory Board of the International Aspirin Foundation, outside the submitted work.The results of ‘Effect of Finerenone on Chronic Kidney Disease Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes’ have been published in the New England Journal of Medicine (DOI.

    10.1056/NEJMoa2025845) References1Bakris GL, Agarwal R, Anker SD, Pitt B, Ruilope LM, Rossing P, Kolkhof P, Nowack C, Schloemer P, Joseph A, Filippatos G. For the FIDELIO-DKD Investigatorset al for the FIDELIO-DKD Investigators. Effect of finerenone on chronic kidney disease outcomes in type 2 diabetes.

    N Engl J Med 2020;383:2219–2229.2Perkovic V, Jardine MJ, Neal B, Bompoint S, Heerspink HJL, Charytan DM, Edwards R, Agarwal R, Bakris G, Bull S, Cannon CP, Capuano G, Chu PL, de Zeeuw D, Greene T, Levin A, Pollock C, Wheeler DC, Yavin Y, Zhang H, Zinman B, Meininger G, Brenner BM, Mahaffey KW. CREDENCE Trial Investigators. Canagliflozin and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.

    N Engl J Med 2019;380:2295–2306.3Ruilope LM, Agarwal R, Anker SD, Bakris GL, Filippatos G, Nowack C, Kolkhof P, Joseph A, Mentenich N, Pitt B. FIGARO-DKD Study Investigators. Design and baseline characteristics of the finerenone in reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in diabetic kidney disease trial.

    Am J Nephrol 2019;50:345–356. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved.

    © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com..

    €‚For the podcast associated with this article, please visit https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/pages/Podcasts.I would like to begin here by wishing you and your buy generic viagra online loved ones a wonderful New Year. The past year has been difficult for all of us. erectile dysfunction treatment has caused illness and mortality on a global buy generic viagra online scale, has forced us to rethink our habits, has dealt a huge blow to our economies, and has cast a shadow on future plans. Unfortunately, human history is studded with wars, viagras, and famines, frequently in deadly combination.

    Yet, it is in difficult buy generic viagra online times that humankind shows extraordinary resources and indomitable resilience. The erectile dysfunction treatment viagra is no exception. The incredible progress of our knowledge in a very short period of time leading to innovative forms of treatment will hopefully allow us to overcome this difficult buy generic viagra online moment in the near future. We should not, however, forget the many lessons learned in this difficult period, including the devastating effects of air pollution on erectile dysfunction treatment spread and lethality,1 in addition to the well-known devastating effects on cardiovascular health.2This is a Focus Issue on epidemiology and prevention.

    Exercise recommendations and eligibility criteria for sports participation in competitive athletes with cardiovascular disease (CVD) were originally published by the Sports Cardiology Section of the European Society of Cardiology in 2005,3 and some aspects were subsequently updated in 2019.4 The overarching aim of these recommendations was to minimize the risk of adverse buy generic viagra online events in highly trained athletes. It is important to recognize, however, that most of the exercising population engages in leisure sport and solo recreational exercise and, unlike elite athletes, these individuals have a higher prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerosis and established CVD.5 The first contribution in this issue is the ‘2020 ESC Guidelines on Sports Cardiology and Exercise in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease’6 by Antonio Pelliccia from the Institute of Sport Medicine and Science in Rome, Italy, and his colleagues of the ESC Scientific Document Group. The authors note that sports cardiology is a relatively novel and emerging specialty area, therefore the buy generic viagra online evidence base for the natural history of disease progression or risk of death during intensive exercise and competitive sport among individuals with CVD is relatively sparse. This is reflected by the fact that a disproportionately large number of recommendations are reliant on the wisdom and vast experience of the consensus group rather than on large prospective studies.

    The authors acknowledge the inherent difficulties in formulating recommendations for all scenarios in a heterogeneous population with a diverse spectrum of CVDs in light of the limited availability buy generic viagra online of evidence. Therefore, these recommendations should not be considered as legally binding and should not discourage individual physicians from practising outside the remit of this document, based on their clinical experience in sports cardiology. In addition, in line with good clinical practice, the present document encourages shared decision-making with the athlete patient and buy generic viagra online respects the autonomy of the individual after provision of detailed information about the impact of sports and the potential risks of complications and/or adverse events. The current Guidelines also provide recommendations on the investigation, risk assessment, and management of patients with CVDs to aid physicians when prescribing exercise programmes or providing advice for participation in sports.While deep vein thrombosis of the leg following airplane travel, the so-called economy class syndrome, received much attention years ago, now a report on internal jugular vein thrombosis in astronauts in space has startled the space medical community.7 In a Current Opinion article entitled ‘The thrombotic risk of spaceflight.

    Has a serious problem been overlooked for more than half buy generic viagra online of a century?. €™, Ulrich Limper from the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Cologne, Germany, and colleagues discuss this topic.8 Small cell, animal, and human studies performed in ground-based models and in actual weightlessness have revealed an influence of weightlessness and gravity on the blood coagulation system. However, human study populations buy generic viagra online were small and limited to carefully selected participants. Evidence in individuals with medical conditions and in older persons is lacking.

    Evidence for thrombotic buy generic viagra online risk in spaceflight is unsatisfactory. This topic deserves rapid study in heterogeneous populations to guarantee safe governmental and touristic human spaceflight.CVD and cancer remain the leading causes of death. Although the epidemiology, pathobiology, and treatment of each buy generic viagra online of these diseases have been the focus of intensive study for decades, the intersection has only recently gained broader interest. There is increasing recognition that common shared risk factors predispose patients to both CVD and cancer.

    In addition, cancer and traditional cancer therapies are associated with CVD buy generic viagra online. Conversely, recent intriguing data suggest that CVD (e.g. Heart failure) may stimulate tumour growth. Novel targeted therapies and their association with hypertension, arterial events, metabolic syndrome, and myocarditis all add complexity to the relationship between cancer and CVD.9 In a clinical research manuscript entitled ‘Long-term cardiovascular buy generic viagra online disease mortality among 160 834 five-year survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer.

    An American population-based cohort study’, Lai Wang and colleagues assessed the risk of CVD mortality in US 5-year survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer compared with that of the general population and contemporaneous 5-year survivors of childhood cancer.10 A total of 160 834 five-year AYA cancer survivors (aged 15–39 years at diagnosis) were included, representing 2 239 390 person-years of follow-up. Overall, 2910 CVD deaths occurred, which buy generic viagra online was 1.4-fold more that expected in the general population, corresponding to 3.6 excess CVD deaths per 10 000 person-years (Figure 1). The highest risk of cardiac mortality was experienced after Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and the highest risk of cerebrovascular mortality was observed with central nervous system (CNS) tumours. Even in survivors in their sixth and seventh decades of life, the risk of CVD mortality remained markedly higher than that of the buy generic viagra online matched general population.

    Competing risk analysis showed that the cumulative mortality of CVD was elevated among AYA cancer survivors compared with childhood cancer survivors during the whole study period. Figure 1Cumulative mortality of heart disease among 5-year survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer and childhood cancer according to time since diagnosis by (A) sex, (B) ethnicity, and (C) lymphoma subtypes (from Lai Wang, Fengjiao Wang, Lianyu buy generic viagra online Chen, Yawen Geng, Shulin Yu, and Zhen Chen, Long-term cardiovascular disease mortality among 160 834 5-year survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer. An American population-based cohort study. See pages 101–109).Figure 1Cumulative mortality of heart disease among 5-year survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer and childhood cancer according to time since diagnosis by (A) sex, (B) ethnicity, and (C) lymphoma subtypes (from Lai Wang, Fengjiao Wang, Lianyu Chen, Yawen Geng, Shulin Yu, and Zhen Chen, Long-term cardiovascular disease mortality among 160 834 5-year survivors of adolescent and buy generic viagra online young adult cancer.

    An American population-based cohort study. See pages 101–109).The authors conclude that long-term AYA cancer survivors have a greater risk of CVD mortality than the US general buy generic viagra online population and childhood cancer survivors. Vulnerable subgroups, especially survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma and CNS tumours, require continued close follow-up care for cardiovascular conditions throughout survivorship. The manuscript is accompanied by an Editorial by Patrizio Lancellotti from the buy generic viagra online University Hospital of Liège in Belgium and colleagues.11 The authors note that despite the many unknowns, the present study represents a valuable contribution to the identification of at-risk patient groups requiring close follow-up care, as well as to the understanding of a major health issue.Systemic vascular inflammation plays multiple maladaptive roles which contribute to the progression and destabilization of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).12,13 In a state of the art review entitled ‘Targeting cardiovascular inflammation.

    Next steps in clinical translation’, Patrick R. Lawler from the University of Toronto in Canada, and colleagues note buy generic viagra online that these roles include. (i) driving atheroprogression in the clinically stable phase of disease. (ii) inciting buy generic viagra online atheroma destabilization and precipitating acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

    And (iii) responding to cardiomyocyte necrosis in myocardial infarction (MI).14 Despite an evolving understanding of these biological processes, successful clinical translation into effective therapies has proven challenging. Realizing the promise of targeting inflammation in the prevention and treatment of ASCVD buy generic viagra online will be likely to require more individualized approaches, as the degree of inflammation differs among cardiovascular patients. A large body of evidence has accumulated supporting the use of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a clinical measure of inflammation. Appreciating the mechanistic diversity of ACS triggers and the kinetics of buy generic viagra online hsCRP in MI may resolve purported inconsistencies from prior observational studies.

    Future clinical trial designs incorporating hsCRP may hold promise to enable individualized approaches. The aim of this Clinical Review is to buy generic viagra online summarize the current understanding of how inflammation contributes to ASCVD progression, destabilization, and adverse clinical outcomes. The authors offer a forward-looking perspective on what next steps may enable successful clinical translation into effective therapeutic approaches—enabling targeting the right patients with the right therapy at the right time—on the road to more individualized ASCVD care (Figure 2). Figure 2Key contemporary buy generic viagra online residual risk pathways in secondary prevention.

    *In addition to standard evidence-based therapies, more aggressive blood pressure targets may be considered. (from Patrick R. Lawler, Deepak L buy generic viagra online. Bhatt, Lucas C.

    Godoy, Thomas buy generic viagra online F. Lüscher, Robert O. Bonow, Subodh Verma, and Paul M Ridker, buy generic viagra online Targeting cardiovascular inflammation. Next steps in clinical translation.

    See pages 113–131.)Figure 2Key contemporary residual risk pathways in secondary prevention buy generic viagra online. *In addition to standard evidence-based therapies, more aggressive blood pressure targets may be considered. (from Patrick R buy generic viagra online. Lawler, Deepak L.

    Bhatt, Lucas buy generic viagra online C. Godoy, Thomas F. Lüscher, Robert O buy generic viagra online. Bonow, Subodh Verma, and Paul M Ridker, Targeting cardiovascular inflammation.

    Next steps in clinical buy generic viagra online translation. See pages 113–131.)The issue is also complemented by Discussion Forum contributions. In a contribution entitled ‘Time for clinicians to revisit their perspectives on C-statistic’, buy generic viagra online Arya Aminorroaya from the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran and colleagues comment on the recent publication ‘Feasibility of using deep learning to detect coronary artery disease based on facial photo’ by Shen Lin from the Peking Union Medical College in China, and colleagues.15,16 Lin et al. Respond in a separate comment.17The editors hope that readers of this issue of the European Heart Journal will find it of interest.With thanks to Amelia Meier-Batschelet, Johanna Huggler, and Martin Meyer for help with compilation of this article.

    References1Copat C, buy generic viagra online Cristaldi A, Fiore M, Grasso A, Zuccarello P, Santo Signorelli S, Conti GO, Ferrante M. The role of air pollution (PM and NO2) in erectile dysfunction treatment spread and lethality. A systematic review buy generic viagra online. Environ Res 2020;191:110129.2Münzel T, Sørensen M, Gori T, Schmidt FP, Rao X, Brook J, Chen LC, Brook RD, Rajagopalan S.

    Environmental stressors and cardio-metabolic disease buy generic viagra online. Part I—epidemiologic evidence supporting a role for noise and air pollution and effects of mitigation strategies. Eur Heart J 2017;38:550–556.3Pelliccia A, Fagard R, Bjørnstad HH, Anastassakis A, Arbustini E, Assanelli D, Biffi A, Borjesson M, Carrè F, Corrado D. Recommendations for buy generic viagra online competitive sports participation in athletes with cardiovascular disease.

    A consensus document from the Study Group of Sports Cardiology of the Working Group of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology and the Working Group of Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2005;26:1422–1445.4Pelliccia A, buy generic viagra online Solberg EE, Papadakis M, Adami PE, Biffi A, Caselli S, La Gerche A, Niebauer J, Pressler A, Schmied CM. Recommendations for participation in competitive and leisure time sport in athletes with cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, and pericarditis. Position statement of the Sport Cardiology Section of buy generic viagra online the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC).

    Eur Heart J 2019;40:19–33.5Gasperetti A, James CA, Cerrone M, Delmar M, Calkins H, Duru F. Arrhythmias right ventricular cardiomyopathy and sports activity buy generic viagra online. From molecular pathways in diseased hearts to new insights into the athletic heart mimicry. Eur Heart J 2020;doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa821.6Pelliccia A, Sharma S, Gati S, buy generic viagra online Bäck M, Börjesson M, Caselli S, Collet J-P, Corrado D, Drezner JA, Halle M.

    2020 ESC Guidelines on sports cardiology and exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease. The Task Force on sports cardiology buy generic viagra online and exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2021;42:5–15.7Auñón-Chancellor SM, Pattarini JM, Moll S, Sargsyan A. Venous thrombosis buy generic viagra online during spaceflight.

    N Engl J Med 2020;382:89–90.8Limper U, Tank J, Ahnert T, Maegele M, Grottke O, Hein M, Jordan J. The thrombotic risk of buy generic viagra online spaceflight. Has a serious problem been overlooked for more than half of a century?. Eur Heart J buy generic viagra online 2021;42:97–100.9Kondapalli L, Moslehi J, Bonaca MP.

    Inflammation begets inflammation. Cancer and acute buy generic viagra online MI. Eur Heart J 2020;41:2194–2196.10Wang L, Wang F, Chen L, Geng Y, Yu S, Chen Z. Long-term cardiovascular disease mortality buy generic viagra online among 160 834 five-year survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer.

    An American population-based cohort study. Eur Heart J 2021;42:101–109.11Lancellotti P, Nguyen Trung M-L, buy generic viagra online Oury C, Moonen M. Cancer and cardiovascular mortality risk. Is the buy generic viagra online die cast?.

    Eur Heart J 2021;42:110–112.12Liberale L, Montecucco F, Tardif J-C, Libby P, Camici GG. Inflamm-ageing. The role buy generic viagra online of inflammation in age-dependent cardiovascular disease. Eur Heart J 2020;41:2974–2982.13Stojanović SD, Fiedler J, Bauersachs J, Thum T, Sedding DG.

    Senescence-induced inflammation buy generic viagra online. An important player and key therapeutic target in atherosclerosis. Eur Heart J 2020;41:2983–2996.14Lawler PR, Bhatt DL, Godoy LC, Lüscher TF, buy generic viagra online Bonow RO, Verma S, Ridker PM. Targeting cardiovascular inflammation.

    Next steps buy generic viagra online in clinical translation. Eur Heart J 2021;42:113–131.15Aminorroaya A, Tajdini M, Masoudkabir F. Time for clinicians to revisit their perspectives buy generic viagra online on C-statistic. Eur Heart J 2021;42:132–133.16Lin S, Li Z, Fu B, Chen S, Li X, Wang Y, Wang X, Lv B, Xu B, Song X.

    Feasibility of using deep learning to detect coronary artery disease based on facial photo buy generic viagra online. Eur Heart J 2020;41:4400–4411.17Lin S, Chen S, Zhe Z. Model assessment buy generic viagra online. New measures should be known and traditional measures should be accurately interpreted.

    Eur Heart J 2021;42:134–135 buy generic viagra online. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights buy generic viagra online reserved. © The Author(s) 2021.

    For permissions, buy generic viagra online please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com.The results of “Effect of Finerenone on Chronic Kidney Disease Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes” have been published in the New England Journal of Medicine (DOI. 10.1056/NEJMoa2025845)Key pointsFinerenone in Reducing Kidney Failure and Disease Progression in Diabetic Kidney Disease (FIDELIO-DKD), an industry-promoted phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial investigated the long-term effects on renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes of finerenone, a non-steroidal, selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic kidney disease (CKD).The overall population included 5734 eligible patients with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UAC) between 30 and 300 mg/g, an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 25 to <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 of body surface area and diabetic retinopathy, or—in the presence of UAC of 300 to 5000 mg/g—an eGFR of 25 to <75 mL/min/1.73 m2.When added to standard treatment (including a max dose of a renin-angiotensin system blocker), finerenone (10 mg or 20 mg according to renal function) was shown to be superior to placebo with respect to the primary composite outcome, assessed in a time-to-event analysis, of kidney buy generic viagra online failure, a sustained decrease of at least 40% in the eGFR from baseline, or death from renal causes [hazard ratio (HR) 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–0.93. P = 0.001) during a median follow-up of 2.6 years.

    Finerenone also reduced the incidence of the key secondary composite outcome of death from CV causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure (HF) (HR buy generic viagra online 0.86, 95% CI 0.75–0.99. P = 0.003).The incidence of serious adverse events did not differ significantly between finerenone and placebo. However, overall hyperkalaemia-related adverse events were twice as frequent with finerenone as with placebo (18.3% and 9.0%, respectively) and the frequency of hyperkalaemia leading to discontinuation was also higher with finerenone than placebo (2.3% vs. 0.9%).

    CommentThe rationale for the FIDELIO-DKD trial1 relies on the observation that CKD is often associated with mild hyperaldosteronism which, through mineralocorticoid receptors distributed in the distal tubule and other structures of the kidney, exerts pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic actions and contributes to the progression of renal damage. However, in order to translate the positive and promising findings of FIDELIO-CKD into clinical practice, a more detailed analysis of the impact of finerenone on individual outcomes, as well as of the persisting and potentially harmful side-effects of MRA reported in this study, are needed.First, while finerenone was superior compared to placebo in reducing the primary composite outcome, when the individual components of the endpoint were analysed separately, the incidence of kidney failure was not significantly different in the finerenone and placebo groups (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.72–1.05) and the impact on the composite endpoint was largely driven by a sustained decrease of ≥40% in eGFR from baseline (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.72–0.92).Secondly, with regard to the individual CV components of the key secondary composite outcome, finerenone had only statistically uncertain effects on death from CV causes (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.68–1.08), non-fatal MI (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.58–1.09), non-fatal stroke (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.76–1.38), hospitalization for HF (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.68–1.08), death from any cause (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.75–1.07), and hospitalization for any cause (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.88–1.02).Finally, the higher incidence of hyperkalaemia and of withdrawals and hospitalizations due to hyperkalaemia observed with finerenone compared to placebo continues to be an issue of particular concern, mostly in patients with CKD and may represent an important barrier to its clinical use.Another relevant contemporary issue is when and in which patients to consider finerenone. When compared to the results of the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial2 with the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i), canagliflozin, the magnitude of the benefits achieved with finerenone in terms of CKD progression (−18%) was less impressive than in CREDENCE (−30%). Differences in the populations of these trials may have contributed to a different effect size of the intervention since CREDENCE excluded patients who received MRA and those with eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, whereas FIDELIO-CKD enrolled patients treated SGLT2i (about 7%) and those with a worse renal function (>25 mL/min/1.73 m2), but did not include those affected by HF with reduced ejection fraction.It is possible that a subpopulation of patients with T2D and CKD may benefit more from finerenone than suggested by the overall effect size.

    Although it was previously demonstrated that aldosterone levels are inversely proportional to eGFR in patients with CKD, the study was clearly not powered to reliably assess the benefits of finerenone in relation to baseline renal function.Additional information on the efficacy and safety of finerenone in patients with T2D and less advanced CKD will be provided by the Finerenone in Reducing Cardiovascular Mortality and Morbidity in Diabetic Kidney Disease (FIGARO-DKD) trial.3 Supplementary materialSupplementary material is available at European Heart Journal online.Conflict of interest. M.V. Reports personal fees for speaker bureau and/or consulting in Advisory Board from Amgen, Astra Zeneca, Daiichi-Sankyo, Menarini Int, MSD, Novartis Pharma, Novo Nordisk outside the submitted work. C.P.

    Reports personal fees from Acticor Biotech, personal fees from Amgen, personal fees from Bayer, personal fees from GlaxoSmithKline, personal fees from Tremeau, personal fees from Zambon, grants from AIFA (Italian Drug Agency), grants from European Commission, other from Scientific Advisory Board of the International Aspirin Foundation, outside the submitted work.The results of ‘Effect of Finerenone on Chronic Kidney Disease Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes’ have been published in the New England Journal of Medicine (DOI. 10.1056/NEJMoa2025845) References1Bakris GL, Agarwal R, Anker SD, Pitt B, Ruilope LM, Rossing P, Kolkhof P, Nowack C, Schloemer P, Joseph A, Filippatos G. For the FIDELIO-DKD Investigatorset al for the FIDELIO-DKD Investigators. Effect of finerenone on chronic kidney disease outcomes in type 2 diabetes.

    N Engl J Med 2020;383:2219–2229.2Perkovic V, Jardine MJ, Neal B, Bompoint S, Heerspink HJL, Charytan DM, Edwards R, Agarwal R, Bakris G, Bull S, Cannon CP, Capuano G, Chu PL, de Zeeuw D, Greene T, Levin A, Pollock C, Wheeler DC, Yavin Y, Zhang H, Zinman B, Meininger G, Brenner BM, Mahaffey KW. CREDENCE Trial Investigators. Canagliflozin and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med 2019;380:2295–2306.3Ruilope LM, Agarwal R, Anker SD, Bakris GL, Filippatos G, Nowack C, Kolkhof P, Joseph A, Mentenich N, Pitt B.

    FIGARO-DKD Study Investigators. Design and baseline characteristics of the finerenone in reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in diabetic kidney disease trial. Am J Nephrol 2019;50:345–356. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

    All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email. Journals.permissions@oup.com..

    How long before sex do you take viagra

    Food insecurity—the economic and social condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food—is high on the agenda.1 In Europe, estimates from Eurostat in 2020 show that 7% of households with children are food insecure.2 There is a worry that the corresponding figures for 2021 may be even higher as the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra has led to increased unemployment and economic uncertainty, processes that likely exacerbate food insecurity.3 4 The fact that so many children experience insecure how much does viagra cost at walmart access to food is important in its own right, but food insecurity is also associated with long-term adverse outcomes related to, for example, education and nutrition.5 6In a timely how long before sex do you take viagra new study, Men et al7 examine the association between food insecurity and mental health problems among children and young adults. Using large-scale Canadian survey data on more than 55 000 individuals, they document that food insecurity is associated with worse mental health, and that the association is graded with more severe food insecurity associated with progressively worse health. The study includes overall measures of mental health, but also more specific measures related to depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation.Beyond the immediate relevance of the topic, Men et how long before sex do you take viagra al7 address dimensions of disadvantage that go beyond standard measures of socioeconomic status such as income and poverty, and it is also interesting to see such patterns in a country with universal healthcare and a safety net meant to buffer some of the disadvantages of poor income.

    Men et al7 also found a strong association between food insecurity and risk of mental health problems, net of household income and other socioeconomic factors. This highlights an additional how long before sex do you take viagra point. Even though childhood food insecurity is closely linked to poverty, food insecurity may be high even among families above poverty thresholds.Men and colleagues mention social disorganisation within the family as a potential explanation of why the relationship between household insecurity and mental health exists even after controlling for income.

    Other factors, such as high how long before sex do you take viagra cost of living in certain areas (ie, large cities), may make it difficult to get by even with a decent income. As such geography may be a relevant factor. Parental unemployment and other how long before sex do you take viagra abrupt changes such as divorce, or disability among family members, are additional factors that could contribute to food insecurity.

    Importantly, these risk factors are much more likely to affect low-income families.8 Even among those entitled to benefits, there might be delays in receiving these, with consequences for a family’s food security. Typically, family poverty is often measured annually, but such aggregated measures might not capture the income volatility how long before sex do you take viagra experienced by many low-income families.A key limitation of the study is the cross-sectional nature of the data, which makes the interpretation open to reverse causation. For example, prior research has revealed a plethora of factors that predict food insecurity, such as mother’s health, substance abuse, family instability and immigrant background.5 Thus, the path from food insecurity to mental health might not be as straightforward as we might expect, as there could be other factors—often less easily measured—that account for part of the association.

    However, the how long before sex do you take viagra authors acknowledge this, and one study can only do so much. Instead, future research should also apply (quasi)experimental approaches to get closer to causal estimates.Future research could also benefit from a comparative perspective. The rate of food insecurity varies considerably across countries, but how long before sex do you take viagra we know less about whether the consequences of food insecurity for children and youth also differ across countries.

    Previous research has shown that the relationship between parental income and children’s adult attainments and intergenerational mobility varies across countries, with less adverse consequences in more egalitarian and universal welfare states.9 For the current topic, the primary goal of welfare states should be to limit the prevalence of food insecurity among children. However, it is important to know whether welfare states also cushion the negative repercussions among those children who still face insecure access to food while growing up.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.Recent evidence of continuing inequalities by educational level in disability in Europe is disappointing. Further socioeconomic measures might reveal how long before sex do you take viagra greater inequalities.

    Conclusions are limited by differences in wording used to establish disability. Assuming that there how long before sex do you take viagra is inequity behind these inequalities, this, along with the adverse effects of the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, reinforces the need for multisectoral action, collaboration and cooperation.Rubio Valverde et al1 show us that inequalities in disabilities in Europe have not improved between 2002 and 2017. They included a wide age range (30–79 years) and 26 countries.

    They used two surveys, the European Union Statistics how long before sex do you take viagra on Income and Living (EU-SILC) and the European Social Survey. The disability measure was the Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI), a self-report of being limited in activities ‘people usually do’ in the past 6 months.2 The former survey indicated an increase in gap between low and high education groups, with the more educated experiencing reduced prevalence of disability, and the latter survey no discernible trend. Inequalities have how long before sex do you take viagra been the subject of discussion for decades so it is disappointing to find this.Three aspects of the paper caught my attention.

    This is one of a long series of analyses by article source Mackenbach and his team which use education as the socioeconomic indicator. Their reasons for doing this are that they judge educational measures to be most comparable across countries, that it may be a starting point for several how long before sex do you take viagra pathways and reverse causation is unlikely.3 However, it may not be the socioeconomic indicator most strongly related to disability and may underestimate the importance of socioeconomic status. For example, in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, absolute differences in healthy life expectancy were greater for wealth categories than for education or social class whereas in the USA’s Health and Retirement Study both wealth and education were strong.4 Marmot’s example of a Glasgow male shows how education, occupation and material resource all play a part.5Marmot is also talking about ‘equity’ whereas Rubio Valverde’s paper refers to inequality.

    To know that there are these inequalities is the starting point but the prompt how long before sex do you take viagra to action is inequity. Not a new topic, of course, but one that has become highly visible with the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra. The WHO report judges that ‘failure to anticipate and avoid the resulting unwanted scenarios in the short and medium terms has led to a major risk both of exacerbating health, social and economic inequities in how long before sex do you take viagra the long term and of giving rise to new vulnerabilities within the population’6 (p 1).

    People with learning and other disabilities have been at higher risk of death. In England, as of November 2020, 60% of erectile dysfunction treatment deaths were to people with disabilities.7 erectile dysfunction treatment is leaving some people with reduced long-term health which may lead to reduced earning capacity or mobility6 how long before sex do you take viagra (p 33). Also, new hardship is arising because of the economic and social restrictions.

    The corollary of the two-way impact of socioeconomic inequities on the viagra and the viagra on the inequities is the need for multisectoral policies affecting people’s access to essential care and health services, providing economic security and ensuring that decision-making is an inclusive process6 (p 14). We need ‘commitment to social justice how long before sex do you take viagra and putting equity of health and wellbeing at the heart of all policy making’8 (p 64). Marmot is addressing socioeconomic inequity and those relating to ethnicity, age and gender.The third aspect of the paper is the variability between countries and between surveys in the graphs of disability prevalence over time.

    Both the levels and shapes vary how long before sex do you take viagra. Rubio Valverde et al highlight this and, not finding clear geographical patterns, fall back on overall averages. Some of this heterogeneity arises from how long before sex do you take viagra variation in the GALI wording used in EU-SILC and they have tried to take some account of this.

    There are now several multicountry studies and families of cohort studies which aim to harmonise measures within their group. Methods are how long before sex do you take viagra being developed to harmonise when measures are different9 but Rubio Valverde’s paper highlights how differences in measurement can hamper conclusions about risks. Being self-report, and depending on what people consider to be usual, one can expect some variation by culture and age and gender.

    However, it how long before sex do you take viagra is likely that some of it arises from the context in which people live. Their country’s health services, policy and environment. It would be instructive to learn more about this and see what we can learn from each how long before sex do you take viagra other.

    During the viagra, countries have taken very different paths to deal with the erectile dysfunction viagra and its effects. Collaborative research is how long before sex do you take viagra common in epidemiology. In the economic and political world, sometimes it feels as if the terms ‘cooperation’ and ‘collaboration’ are undervalued.

    My wish is to see them given greater prominence.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required..

    Food insecurity—the economic and social condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food—is high on the agenda.1 In Europe, estimates from buy generic viagra online Eurostat in 2020 show that 7% of households with children are food insecure.2 There is a worry that the corresponding figures for 2021 may be even higher as the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra has led to increased unemployment and economic uncertainty, processes that likely exacerbate food insecurity.3 4 The fact that so many children experience insecure viagra for women price access to food is important in its own right, but food insecurity is also associated with long-term adverse outcomes related to, for example, education and nutrition.5 6In a timely new study, Men et al7 examine the association between food insecurity and mental health problems among children and young adults. Using large-scale Canadian survey data on more than 55 000 individuals, they document that food insecurity is associated with worse mental health, and that the association is graded with more severe food insecurity associated with progressively worse health. The study includes overall measures of mental health, but also more specific measures related to depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation.Beyond the immediate relevance of the topic, Men et al7 buy generic viagra online address dimensions of disadvantage that go beyond standard measures of socioeconomic status such as income and poverty, and it is also interesting to see such patterns in a country with universal healthcare and a safety net meant to buffer some of the disadvantages of poor income.

    Men et al7 also found a strong association between food insecurity and risk of mental health problems, net of household income and other socioeconomic factors. This highlights an additional point buy generic viagra online. Even though childhood food insecurity is closely linked to poverty, food insecurity may be high even among families above poverty thresholds.Men and colleagues mention social disorganisation within the family as a potential explanation of why the relationship between household insecurity and mental health exists even after controlling for income.

    Other factors, such as high cost of living in certain areas (ie, large cities), may make it buy generic viagra online difficult to get by even with a decent income. As such geography may be a relevant factor. Parental unemployment and other abrupt changes such as divorce, or disability buy generic viagra online among family members, are additional factors that could contribute to food insecurity.

    Importantly, these risk factors are much more likely to affect low-income families.8 Even among those entitled to benefits, there might be delays in receiving these, with consequences for a family’s food security. Typically, family poverty is buy generic viagra online often measured annually, but such aggregated measures might not capture the income volatility experienced by many low-income families.A key limitation of the study is the cross-sectional nature of the data, which makes the interpretation open to reverse causation. For example, prior research has revealed a plethora of factors that predict food insecurity, such as mother’s health, substance abuse, family instability and immigrant background.5 Thus, the path from food insecurity to mental health might not be as straightforward as we might expect, as there could be other factors—often less easily measured—that account for part of the association.

    However, the buy generic viagra online authors acknowledge this, and one study can only do so much. Instead, future research should also apply (quasi)experimental approaches to get closer to causal estimates.Future research could also benefit from a comparative perspective. The rate of food insecurity varies considerably across countries, but we know less about whether the consequences of food insecurity for children and youth also differ buy generic viagra online across countries.

    Previous research has shown that the relationship between parental income and children’s adult attainments and intergenerational mobility varies across countries, with less adverse consequences in more egalitarian and universal welfare states.9 For the current topic, the primary goal of welfare states should be to limit the prevalence of food insecurity among children. However, it is important to know whether welfare states also cushion the negative repercussions among those children who still face insecure access to food while growing up.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.Recent evidence of continuing inequalities by educational level in disability in Europe is disappointing. Further socioeconomic buy generic viagra online measures might reveal greater inequalities.

    Conclusions are limited by differences in wording used to establish disability. Assuming that there is inequity behind these inequalities, this, along with the adverse effects of the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, reinforces the need for multisectoral action, collaboration and cooperation.Rubio Valverde et al1 show us that inequalities in disabilities in Europe buy generic viagra online have not improved between 2002 and 2017. They included a wide age range (30–79 years) and 26 countries.

    They used two surveys, the buy generic viagra online European Union Statistics on Income and Living (EU-SILC) and the European Social Survey. The disability measure was the Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI), a self-report of being limited in activities ‘people usually do’ in the past 6 months.2 The former survey indicated an increase in gap between low and high education groups, with the more educated experiencing reduced prevalence of disability, and the latter survey no discernible trend. Inequalities have been the subject of discussion for decades so it is disappointing to find this.Three aspects of buy generic viagra online the paper caught my attention.

    This is one of http://team-kennedy.com/?p=80 a long series of analyses by Mackenbach and his team which use education as the socioeconomic indicator. Their reasons for doing this are that they judge educational measures to be most comparable across countries, that it may be a starting point for several pathways and reverse causation is unlikely.3 However, it may not be the socioeconomic indicator most strongly related to disability and may underestimate the importance of socioeconomic status buy generic viagra online. For example, in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, absolute differences in healthy life expectancy were greater for wealth categories than for education or social class whereas in the USA’s Health and Retirement Study both wealth and education were strong.4 Marmot’s example of a Glasgow male shows how education, occupation and material resource all play a part.5Marmot is also talking about ‘equity’ whereas Rubio Valverde’s paper refers to inequality.

    To know that buy generic viagra online there are these inequalities is the starting point but the prompt to action is inequity. Not a new topic, of course, but one that has become highly visible with the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra. The WHO report judges that ‘failure to anticipate and avoid the resulting unwanted scenarios in the short and medium terms has led to a major buy generic viagra online risk both of exacerbating health, social and economic inequities in the long term and of giving rise to new vulnerabilities within the population’6 (p 1).

    People with learning and other disabilities have been at higher risk of death. In England, as of November buy generic viagra online 2020, 60% of erectile dysfunction treatment deaths were to people with disabilities.7 erectile dysfunction treatment is leaving some people with reduced long-term health which may lead to reduced earning capacity or mobility6 (p 33). Also, new hardship is arising because of the economic and social restrictions.

    The corollary of the two-way impact of socioeconomic inequities on the viagra and the viagra on the inequities is the need for multisectoral policies affecting people’s access to essential care and health services, providing economic security and ensuring that decision-making is an inclusive process6 (p 14). We need ‘commitment to social justice and putting equity of health and wellbeing at the buy generic viagra online heart of all policy making’8 (p 64). Marmot is addressing socioeconomic inequity and those relating to ethnicity, age and gender.The third aspect of the paper is the variability between countries and between surveys in the graphs of disability prevalence over time.

    Both the levels and buy generic viagra online shapes vary. Rubio Valverde et al highlight this and, not finding clear geographical patterns, fall back on overall averages. Some of this heterogeneity arises from variation in the GALI wording used in EU-SILC and they buy generic viagra online have tried to take some account of this.

    There are now several multicountry studies and families of cohort studies which aim to harmonise measures within their group. Methods are being developed to harmonise when buy generic viagra online measures are different9 but Rubio Valverde’s paper highlights how differences in measurement can hamper conclusions about risks. Being self-report, and depending on what people consider to be usual, one can expect some variation by culture and age and gender.

    However, it is likely that some of it buy generic viagra online arises from the context in which people live. Their country’s health services, policy and environment. It would be instructive to learn more about this and see what we can learn buy generic viagra online from each other.

    During the viagra, countries have taken very different paths to deal with the erectile dysfunction viagra and its effects. Collaborative research buy generic viagra online is common in epidemiology. In the economic and political world, sometimes it feels as if the terms ‘cooperation’ and ‘collaboration’ are undervalued.

    My wish is to see them given greater prominence.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required..

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    News ReleaseMonday, webpage September 6, 2021A genomic analysis of lung cancer in people with no history of smoking when to take viagra has found that a majority of these tumors arise from the accumulation of mutations caused by natural processes in the body. This study was conducted by an international team led by researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and describes for the first time three molecular subtypes of lung cancer in people who have never smoked. These insights will help unlock the when to take viagra mystery of how lung cancer arises in people who have no history of smoking and may guide the development of more precise clinical treatments. The findings were published September 6, 2021, in Nature Genetics. €œWhat we’re seeing is that there are different subtypes of lung cancer in never smokers that have distinct molecular characteristics and evolutionary processes,” said epidemiologist Maria Teresa Landi, M.D., Ph.D., of the Integrative Tumor Epidemiology Branch in NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, who led the study, which was done in collaboration with researchers at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, another part of NIH, and other institutions.

    €œIn the future we may be able to have different treatments based on these subtypes.” Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide when to take viagra. Every year, more than 2 million people around the world are diagnosed with the disease. Most people who develop lung cancer have a history of tobacco smoking, but 10% to 20% of people who develop lung cancer have never smoked. Lung cancer in never smokers occurs more frequently in women when to take viagra and at an earlier age than lung cancer in smokers. Environmental risk factors, such as exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, radon, air pollution, and asbestos, or having had previous lung diseases, may explain some lung cancers among never smokers, but scientists still don’t know what causes the majority of these cancers.

    In this large when to take viagra epidemiologic study, the researchers used whole-genome sequencing to characterize the genomic changes in tumor tissue and matched normal tissue from 232 never smokers, predominantly of European descent, who had been diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer. The tumors included 189 adenocarcinomas (the most common type of lung cancer), 36 carcinoids, and seven other tumors of various types. The patients had not yet undergone treatment for their cancer. The researchers combed the tumor genomes for mutational signatures, which are patterns of mutations when to take viagra associated with specific mutational processes, such as damage from natural activities in the body (for example, faulty DNA repair or oxidative stress) or from exposure to carcinogens. Mutational signatures act like a tumor’s archive of activities that led up to the accumulation of mutations, providing clues into what caused the cancer to develop.

    A catalogue of known mutational signatures now exists, although some signatures have no known cause. In this study, the researchers discovered that a majority of the tumor genomes of never smokers bore mutational signatures associated with damage from endogenous processes, that is, natural processes that happen when to take viagra inside the body. As expected, because the study was limited to never smokers, the researchers did not find any mutational signatures that have previously been associated with direct exposure to tobacco smoking. Nor did they find those signatures among the 62 patients who had been exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke. However, Dr when to take viagra.

    Landi cautioned that the sample size was small and the level of exposure highly variable. €œWe need a larger sample size with detailed information on exposure to when to take viagra really study the impact of secondhand tobacco smoking on the development of lung cancer in never smokers,” Dr. Landi said. The genomic analyses also revealed three novel subtypes of lung cancer in never smokers, to which the researchers assigned musical names based on the level of “noise” (that is, the number of genomic changes) in the tumors. The predominant “piano” subtype had the when to take viagra fewest mutations.

    It appeared to be associated with the activation of progenitor cells, which are involved in the creation of new cells. This subtype of tumor grows extremely slowly, over many years, and is difficult to treat because it can have many different driver mutations. The “mezzo-forte” subtype had specific chromosomal changes as well as mutations in the growth factor receptor gene EGFR, which is commonly altered in lung cancer, when to take viagra and exhibited faster tumor growth. The “forte” subtype exhibited whole-genome doubling, a genomic change that is often seen in lung cancers in smokers. This subtype of tumor when to take viagra also grows quickly.

    €œWe’re starting to distinguish subtypes that could potentially have different approaches for prevention and treatment,” said Dr. Landi. For example, the slow-growing piano subtype could give clinicians a window of opportunity to detect these tumors earlier when to take viagra when they are less difficult to treat. In contrast, the mezzo-forte and forte subtypes have only a few major driver mutations, suggesting that these tumors could be identified by a single biopsy and could benefit from targeted treatments, she said. A future direction of this research will be to study people of different ethnic backgrounds and geographic locations, and whose exposure history to lung cancer risk factors is well described.

    €œWe’re at the beginning of understanding how these tumors evolve,” when to take viagra Dr. Landi said. This analysis shows that there is heterogeneity, or diversity, in lung cancers in never smokers.” Stephen J. Chanock, M.D., director of NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, noted, “We expect this detective-style investigation of genomic tumor characteristics to unlock new avenues of discovery for multiple cancer when to take viagra types.” The study was conducted by the Intramural Research Program of NCI and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. About the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

    NCI leads the National Cancer Program and NIH’s efforts to dramatically reduce the prevalence of cancer and improve the lives of cancer patients and their families, through research into prevention and cancer biology, the development of new interventions, and the training when to take viagra and mentoring of new researchers. For more information about cancer, please visit the NCI website at cancer.gov or call NCI’s contact center, the Cancer Information Service, at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237).About the National Institutes of Health (NIH):NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary when to take viagra federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.

    NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health®###A study published today by researchers at the National Institutes of Health revealed that about half of individuals who said they don’t want to receive secondary genomic findings changed their mind after their healthcare provider gave them more detailed information. The paper, published in Genomics in Medicine, examines people's attitudes about when to take viagra receiving secondary genomic findings related to treatable or preventable diseases. The study was led by scientists at the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), both part of NIH. Your browser does not support the video tag. Animation of patient filling out an informed consent form and checking the "YES" checkboxes for both Expected Outcome and Secondary when to take viagra Findings.

    Credit. Ernesto del Aguila when to take viagra III, NHGRI. With the broader adoption of genome sequencing in clinical care, researchers and the bioethics community are considering options for how to navigate the discovery of secondary genomic findings. Secondary findings that come out of genome sequencing reflect information that is separate from the primary reason for an individual's medical care or participation in a study. For example, the genomic data of a patient who undergoes genome sequencing to address an autoimmune problem might reveal when to take viagra genomic variants that are associated with a heightened risk for breast cancer.

    Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics recommendations in 2021, individuals who have their genomes sequenced for a clinical reason should also be screened for genomic variants in 73 genes, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, both of which are linked to an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. All 59 genes are associated with treatable or potentially severe diseases. Proponents of a person’s right to not know their secondary genomic findings have argued that, to maintain autonomy, individuals should have the opportunity to decide whether to be provided information about genomic variants in these when to take viagra additional genes. "Because these genomic findings can have life-saving implications, we wanted to ask the question. Are people really when to take viagra understanding what they are saying no to?.

    If they get more context, or a second opportunity to decide, do they change their mind?. " said Benjamin Berkman, J.D., M.P.H., deputy director of the NHGRI Bioethics Core and senior author on the study. The research group worked with participants from the Environmental Polymorphisms Registry, an NIEHS study examining how genetic and environmental factors influence when to take viagra human health. Out of 8,843 participants, 8,678 elected to receive secondary genomic findings, while 165 opted out. Researchers assessed those 165 individuals to determine how strongly and consistently they maintained their "right not to know" decision.

    The researchers wanted to determine whether providing additional information to people about their genomic variants influenced their decision and to better understand why some people when to take viagra still refused their secondary genomic findings after they received the additional information. Following the intervention, the researchers found that the 165 people sorted into two groups. "reversible refusers" who switched their decision to accept to know their secondary genomic findings and "persistent refusers" who still refused. Because these genomic findings can have life-saving implications, we wanted to ask the question when to take viagra. Are people really understanding what they are saying no to?.

    If they get more context, or a when to take viagra second opportunity to decide, do they change their mind?. "It is worth noting that nearly three-quarters of reversible refusers thought they had originally agreed to receive secondary genomic findings," said Will Schupmann, a doctoral candidate at UCLA and first author on the study. "This means that we should be skeptical about whether checkbox choices are accurately capturing people’s preferences.” Based on the results, the researchers question whether healthcare providers should ask people who have their genome sequenced if they want to receive clinically important secondary genomic findings. Investigators argue that when to take viagra enough data supports a default practice of returning secondary genomic findings without first asking participants if they would like to receive them. But research studies should create a system that also allows people who do not want to know their secondary genomic findings to opt out.

    The researchers suggest that if healthcare providers actively seek their patients’ preferences to know or not know about their secondary genomic findings, the providers should give the individuals multiple opportunities to make and revise their choice. "The right not to know has been a contentious topic in when to take viagra the genomics research community, but we believe that our real-world data can help move the field towards a new policy consensus," said Berkman. Researchers at the NIH Department of Bioethics, NIEHS, Harvard University and Social &. Scientific Systems collaborated on the study..

    News ReleaseMonday, September 6, 2021A genomic analysis of lung cancer in people with no history of smoking buy generic viagra online has found that a majority of these tumors arise from the accumulation of mutations caused by natural processes in the body. This study was conducted by an international team led by researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and describes for the first time three molecular subtypes of lung cancer in people who have never smoked. These insights will help unlock the mystery buy generic viagra online of how lung cancer arises in people who have no history of smoking and may guide the development of more precise clinical treatments.

    The findings were published September 6, 2021, in Nature Genetics. €œWhat we’re seeing is that there are different subtypes of lung cancer in never smokers that have distinct molecular characteristics and evolutionary processes,” said epidemiologist Maria Teresa Landi, M.D., Ph.D., of the Integrative Tumor Epidemiology Branch in NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, who led the study, which was done in collaboration with researchers at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, another part of NIH, and other institutions. €œIn the future we may be able to have different treatments based on these buy generic viagra online subtypes.” Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide.

    Every year, more than 2 million people around the world are diagnosed with the disease. Most people who develop lung cancer have a history of tobacco smoking, but 10% to 20% of people who develop lung cancer have never smoked. Lung cancer in never smokers occurs more frequently in women buy generic viagra online and at an earlier age than lung cancer in smokers.

    Environmental risk factors, such as exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, radon, air pollution, and asbestos, or having had previous lung diseases, may explain some lung cancers among never smokers, but scientists still don’t know what causes the majority of these cancers. In this large epidemiologic study, the researchers used whole-genome sequencing to characterize the genomic changes in tumor tissue and matched normal tissue from 232 never smokers, predominantly of European buy generic viagra online descent, who had been diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer. The tumors included 189 adenocarcinomas (the most common type of lung cancer), 36 carcinoids, and seven other tumors of various types.

    The patients had not yet undergone treatment for their cancer. The researchers buy generic viagra online combed the tumor genomes for mutational signatures, which are patterns of mutations associated with specific mutational processes, such as damage from natural activities in the body (for example, faulty DNA repair or oxidative stress) or from exposure to carcinogens. Mutational signatures act like a tumor’s archive of activities that led up to the accumulation of mutations, providing clues into what caused the cancer to develop.

    A catalogue of known mutational signatures now exists, although some signatures have no known cause. In this study, the researchers discovered that a majority of the tumor genomes of never smokers bore mutational signatures associated with damage from endogenous processes, that buy generic viagra online is, natural processes that happen inside the body. As expected, because the study was limited to never smokers, the researchers did not find any mutational signatures that have previously been associated with direct exposure to tobacco smoking.

    Nor did they find those signatures among the 62 patients who had been exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke. However, Dr buy generic viagra online. Landi cautioned that the sample size was small and the level of exposure highly variable.

    €œWe need a larger sample size with detailed information on exposure to really study the impact of secondhand tobacco smoking buy generic viagra online on the development of lung cancer in never smokers,” Dr. Landi said. The genomic analyses also revealed three novel subtypes of lung cancer in never smokers, to which the researchers assigned musical names based on the level of “noise” (that is, the number of genomic changes) in the tumors.

    The predominant “piano” subtype had buy generic viagra online the fewest mutations. It appeared to be associated with the activation of progenitor cells, which are involved in the creation of new cells. This subtype of tumor grows extremely slowly, over many years, and is difficult to treat because it can have many different driver mutations.

    The “mezzo-forte” subtype had specific chromosomal changes as well as mutations in the growth factor receptor gene EGFR, which is commonly buy generic viagra online altered in lung cancer, and exhibited faster tumor growth. The “forte” subtype exhibited whole-genome doubling, a genomic change that is often seen in lung cancers in smokers. This subtype of tumor also buy generic viagra online grows quickly.

    €œWe’re starting to distinguish subtypes that could potentially have different approaches for prevention and treatment,” said Dr. Landi. For example, the slow-growing piano subtype could give clinicians a window buy generic viagra online of opportunity to detect these tumors earlier when they are less difficult to treat.

    In contrast, the mezzo-forte and forte subtypes have only a few major driver mutations, suggesting that these tumors could be identified by a single biopsy and could benefit from targeted treatments, she said. A future direction of this research will be to study people of different ethnic backgrounds and geographic locations, and whose exposure history to lung cancer risk factors is well described. €œWe’re at the buy generic viagra online beginning of understanding how these tumors evolve,” Dr.

    Landi said. This analysis shows that there is heterogeneity, or diversity, in lung cancers in never smokers.” Stephen J. Chanock, M.D., director of NCI’s Division of buy generic viagra online Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, noted, “We expect this detective-style investigation of genomic tumor characteristics to unlock new avenues of discovery for multiple cancer types.” The study was conducted by the Intramural Research Program of NCI and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

    About the National Cancer Institute (NCI). NCI leads the National Cancer Program and NIH’s efforts to dramatically reduce buy generic viagra online the prevalence of cancer and improve the lives of cancer patients and their families, through research into prevention and cancer biology, the development of new interventions, and the training and mentoring of new researchers. For more information about cancer, please visit the NCI website at cancer.gov or call NCI’s contact center, the Cancer Information Service, at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237).About the National Institutes of Health (NIH):NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S.

    Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency buy generic viagra online conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.

    NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health®###A study published today by researchers at the National Institutes of Health revealed that about half of individuals who said they don’t want to receive secondary genomic findings changed their mind after their healthcare provider gave them more detailed information. The paper, published in Genomics buy generic viagra online in Medicine, examines people's attitudes about receiving secondary genomic findings related to treatable or preventable diseases. The study was led by scientists at the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), both part of NIH.

    Your browser does not support the video tag. Animation of buy generic viagra online patient filling out an informed consent form and checking the "YES" checkboxes for both Expected Outcome and Secondary Findings. Credit.

    Ernesto del Aguila buy generic viagra online III, NHGRI. With the broader adoption of genome sequencing in clinical care, researchers and the bioethics community are considering options for how to navigate the discovery of secondary genomic findings. Secondary findings that come out of genome sequencing reflect information that is separate from the primary reason for an individual's medical care or participation in a study.

    For example, the genomic data buy generic viagra online of a patient who undergoes genome sequencing to address an autoimmune problem might reveal genomic variants that are associated with a heightened risk for breast cancer. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics recommendations in 2021, individuals who have their genomes sequenced for a clinical reason should also be screened for genomic variants in 73 genes, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, both of which are linked to an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. All 59 genes are associated with treatable or potentially severe diseases.

    Proponents of a person’s right to not know their secondary genomic findings have argued that, to buy generic viagra online maintain autonomy, individuals should have the opportunity to decide whether to be provided information about genomic variants in these additional genes. "Because these genomic findings can have life-saving implications, we wanted to ask the question. Are people really understanding what they are buy generic viagra online saying no to?.

    If they get more context, or a second opportunity to decide, do they change their mind?. " said Benjamin Berkman, J.D., M.P.H., deputy director of the NHGRI Bioethics Core and senior author on the study. The research group worked with participants from the Environmental Polymorphisms Registry, an NIEHS buy generic viagra online study examining how genetic and environmental factors influence human health.

    Out of 8,843 participants, 8,678 elected to receive secondary genomic findings, while 165 opted out. Researchers assessed those 165 individuals to determine how strongly and consistently they maintained their "right not to know" decision. The researchers wanted to determine whether providing additional information to people about their genomic variants influenced their decision and to better understand why some people still refused their secondary genomic findings after they received the additional buy generic viagra online information.

    Following the intervention, the researchers found that the 165 people sorted into two groups. "reversible refusers" who switched their decision to accept to know their secondary genomic findings and "persistent refusers" who still refused. Because these genomic findings buy generic viagra online can have life-saving implications, we wanted to ask the question.

    Are people really understanding what they are saying no to?. If they get more context, or a second opportunity to decide, do buy generic viagra online they change their mind?. "It is worth noting that nearly three-quarters of reversible refusers thought they had originally agreed to receive secondary genomic findings," said Will Schupmann, a doctoral candidate at UCLA and first author on the study.

    "This means that we should be skeptical about whether checkbox choices are accurately capturing people’s preferences.” Based on the results, the researchers question whether healthcare providers should ask people who have their genome sequenced if they want to receive clinically important secondary genomic findings. Investigators argue buy generic viagra online that enough data supports a default practice of returning secondary genomic findings without first asking participants if they would like to receive them. But research studies should create a system that also allows people who do not want to know their secondary genomic findings to opt out.

    The researchers suggest that if healthcare providers actively seek their patients’ preferences to know or not know about their secondary genomic findings, the providers should give the individuals multiple opportunities to make and revise their choice. "The right not to know has been a contentious topic in the genomics research community, but we believe that our real-world data can help move the field towards a new policy consensus," said Berkman. Researchers at the NIH Department of Bioethics, NIEHS, Harvard University and Social &.

    Scientific Systems collaborated on the study..

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Lose the shirt off my back? Nah.

When life got dicey, I opened my closet doors, bypassed the blouses, and earned a (modest) payday by selling used hangers in 25-pack bundles.

More recently, I put my hustle into play at 500 Startups, the world’s most active venture capital fund and startup accelerator, where I led content, branding, marketing, operations, and corporate partnerships for business development and global programs.

Before transitioning into tech, I worked in higher education, teaching online research and media production classes across a variety of disciplines at the University of California, Berkeley. During that time, I also worked as the Director and Executive Producer of Digital Media Projects at the Blum Center for Developing Economies, where I co-founded and led The #GlobalPOV Project, a mixed-media approach to thinking about poverty, inequality, and undertaking poverty action.

In addition, I was the Director of Media at the Center for Middle Eastern Studies, where I had the opportunity to interview Bashar al-Assad in his presidential palace in Damascus, Syria, in late December of 2010. I asked Assad if he considered himself a dictator. He dodged the inquiry, but his actions in the immediate weeks, months, and years to follow answered the question . . . and then some. Sadly.

Before that, I was a practicing journalist and graduate fellow at the University of Southern California. During that time, I worked as a web reporter and photographer for KCET’s “SoCal Connected,”​ as an online editor for the London-based New Statesman magazine, and as the co-editor-in-chief of USC Annenberg’s award-winning digital news website. I got my start in journalism as a full-time associate editor (and employee #20!) at P✪PSUGAR, a Sequoia-backed content and commerce startup turned global media empire.

My freelance reporting has been featured in NBC, CBS, and ABC news broadcasts and in online publications, including The Huffington Post. I have also done manuscript editing for various authors with recognized commercial and university presses.

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