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  • #500STRONG

    New Team, New Shenanigans
    Jan 09

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    Written by Tara Graham

    So pleased and proud to be part of this amazing group of hardworking people. Watch out 2014: #500STRONG is going to kill it.

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  • Mediating

    Aug 23

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    Written by Tara Graham

    SCRIPT EXCERPT: Many people today, particularly those living comfortably in the global North, want to do something to solve the problems of the world, such as the problem of global poverty. They want to act upon poverty, alleviate poverty, volunteer to end poverty—but we must ask: What motivates us to travel short or long distances, to spend a day, a week, many months, or even a spare 15 minutes,...

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  • Mediating

    #GlobalPOV=Doing Good Responsibly, Reports NextBillion
    Jul 29

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    Written by Tara Graham

    NextBillion, an initiative of the World Resources Institute’s Markets and Enterprise Program in partnership with the William Davidson Institute (WDI) at the University of Michigan, is a web forum for the community of business leaders, social entrepreneurs, NGOs, policy makers and academics who want to explore the connection between development and enterprise. NextBillion recently highlighted The #GlobalPOV Project as part of its “NexThought Monday” coverage: Hardly a day goes...

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  • Mediating

    Jul 02

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    Written by Tara Graham

    SCRIPT EXCERPT: Welcome to the world-class city. It has towers, expressways, shopping malls, airports, private schools, and gated condominiums with golf courses, swimming pools and tennis courts. It has no slums, but the world-class city is built by slums — a paradox isn’t it? To see the city from the slum provides a different view, a view of the global urban future. Based on Prof. Ananya Roy’s popular Global...

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  • Mediating

    May 06

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The third video in The #GlobalPOV Project series is an exploration of the poverty business. SCRIPT EXCERPT: The poor pay more for everything, and such transactions are highly profitable for those selling goods and services to the poor. Profits are made on the labor of the poor, the consumption of the poor, and the debt of the poor; meanwhile the poor remain — poor. So who profits from poverty? Based...

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  • Mediating

    #GlobalPOV on Mediabistro’s “AllTwitter”
    May 03

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    Written by Tara Graham

    AllTwitter, a Mediabistro website devoted to breaking Twitter news, highlighted The #GlobalPOV Project as part of its “Pay It Forward Friday” coverage. Regarding the #GlobalPOV video series, AllTwitter writes: And the online videos they’re creating are intended to help “crystallize the nuanced teachings of Berkeley’s biggest minor, Global Poverty and Practice, offered by the Blum Center for Developing Economies.” The videos are posted online so those outside of the school can...

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  • Reporting

    ABC’s 20/20 Features Viral Video Footage of Jonas Brothers Stampede
    Apr 26

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    Written by Tara Graham

    ABC’s primetime news magazine program, “20/20,” aired an investigative report on social behavior and crowd chaos that featured the viral stampede footage I shot using my smartphone at a Jonas Brothers concert in May, 2010. (ABC Air Date: Apr. 26, 2013, Episode: “In An Instant”). NOTE: This post is an update to a previous post tracking the viral popularity of (and subsequent mainstream media interest in) the stampede footage when I posted...

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  • Mediating

    Borgen Project Highlights #GlobalPOV Project
    Apr 16

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The Borgen Project, a nonprofit organization with mission to fight extreme poverty through policy (not charity!) intervention, recently published an article highlighting The #GlobalPOV Project’s mixed-media approach to curriculum development and pedagogy. Check out the article here. To learn more about The Borgen Project, visit the website or read its mission statement below: The Borgen Project believes that leaders of the most powerful nation on earth should be doing more to...

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  • Mediating

    #GlobalPOV Is “Groundbreaking,” Reports UC Berkeley NewsCenter
    Apr 09

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The UC Berkeley NewsCenter recently sat down and interviewed the #GlobalPOV team to discuss the theory behind the project, the production process, and the fact that Prof. Roy would have had an easier time writing and publishing a book already. (But then that would be boring, no?) The article describes the project as “a groundbreaking alternative to dominant forms of online education, a hot topic that’s on the minds...

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  • Mediating

    Mar 13

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    Written by Tara Graham

    Prof. Roy micro-lectured into a micro-phone. I painstakingly cut some denim pockets with an X-ACTO knife. And Abby tried to brew tea in cold water. This vid resulted. The following is a behind-the-scenes look into the making of #GlobalPOV’s “Can We Shop To End Poverty?” video. The #GlobalPOV Project is a program of the Global Poverty and Practice (GPP) Minor. Based at the Blum Center for Developing Economies, University of California, Berkeley, the GPP Minor...

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  • Mediating

    Mar 12

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The second video in The #GlobalPOV Project series is an exploration of ethical consumerism and fair trade interventions. SCRIPT EXCERPT: However tempting it may be to believe that we save lives, empower women and do good with our purchases, the impacts of our consumption on poverty cannot be reduced to mere product labels. Consumers need to understand the life histories of global commodities and advocate for changes in how...

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  • Mediating

    Blum Center News: #GlobalPOV Encourages Students To Become Public Scholars
    Dec 04

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The #GlobalPOV Project’s in-class tweeting component was covered in the Fall 2012 edition of the Blum Center newsletter. In the article, writer Javier Kordi notes: Being a public medium, Twitter allows anyone to join the conversation, but also forces Berkeley students to think of themselves as public scholars— everything they post falls under the scrutiny of the global community. . . . Tara Graham, the architect of this project,...

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  • Mediating

    Nov 29

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    Written by Tara Graham

    Prof. Roy yacked on and on about Bono. Abby did some doodling. I shoved a camera in everyone’s face. This vid resulted. The following is a behind-the-scenes look into the making of The #GlobalPOV Project’s “Who Sees Poverty?” pilot video. The #GlobalPOV Project is a program of the Global Poverty and Practice (GPP) Minor. Based at the Blum Center for Developing Economies at the University of California, Berkeley, the...

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  • Mediating

    Nov 27

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    Written by Tara Graham

    SCRIPT EXCERPT: Poverty exists. That it exists, that it persists, in the 21st century is an obscenity. We want to end this poverty. We want to make poverty history. But we have to ask ourselves: Who is the “we” who sees poverty? When we see poverty, what is that we see? And finally, how do we act upon these ways of seeing? Based on Prof. Ananya Roy’s popular Global...

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  • Mediating

    Daily Cal Talks Twitter In The Classroom
    Oct 16

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The Daily Californian, the student-run UC Berkeley paper of record, visited Prof. Ananya Roy’s “Global Poverty: Challenges and Hopes In The New Millennium” class this week to explore our use of Twitter in a large lecture hall setting. “By projecting tweets pertaining to the class on a screen, professors are able to use teaching methods that allow large groups of students to interact with one another and the professor...

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  • Mediating

    #GlobalPOV: From Public University To Twitterverse
    Sep 27

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The following was originally published via the #GlobalPOV Blog on the Blum Center for Developing Economies website. I co-authored the piece with Prof. Ananya Roy, Education Director of the Global Poverty and Practice Minor at the University of California, Berkeley. In it, we seek to explain the logic behind The #GlobalPOV Project’s Twitter integration and experimentation. By now, it’s common knowledge that Twitter and other forms of social media are...

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  • Reporting

    OPINION: Military, Money & Motives In Egypt
    Feb 18

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The following was originally published via the Harvard University Press Blog. I co-authored the piece with Nezar AlSayyad, Professor of Architecture and Urban History, and Chair of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. “Egypt has passed through a critical period in her recent history characterized by bribery, mischief, and the absence of governmental stability . . . Accordingly, we have undertaken to clean ourselves up...

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  • Reporting

    Syrian President Bashar al-Assad To Me: “Ask The People If I Am Their Dictator”
    Dec 21

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    Written by Tara Graham

    In December 2010, days before a street vendor in Tunisia self-immolated and effectively set the Middle East region afire with a wave of popular uprisings, I had the opportunity to accompany an academic delegation to Bashar al-Assad’s presidential palace in Damascus, Syria. I was the only journalist in the delegation, so I was able to ask Assad a series of questions about his leadership style (does he consider himself a dictator?),...

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  • Reporting

    May 15

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    Written by Tara Graham

    The Jonas Brothers launched their 2010 world tour by giving a free concert at The Grove in Los Angeles, Calif., on May 15, 2010. Over 25,000 adoring fans showed up and made a mad rush for the stage, trampling over each other and security barriers in the process. Chaos ensued, but no injuries were reported. I was there to capture the madness on my smartphone (see above). Nick and...

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  • Reporting

    News Statesman Mag: Sampling of Published Work
    Jul 23

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    Written by Tara Graham

    While taking a University of Southern California foreign reporting class in London, England, during the summer of 2009, I had the opportunity to work as a web editor for the New Statesman magazine. The following is a sampling of the work produced during this time. I mostly reported U.S. political news stories for the website, but I also had the opportunity to contribute research assistance and book reviews to the print publication....

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  • Reporting

    Race In America: ’08 HuffPo Election Coverage Generates Online Debate
    Oct 14

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    Written by Tara Graham

    I had the opportunity to report for The Huffington Post’s “Off-The-Bus” election coverage team while studying journalism on an Annenberg Graduate Fellowship at the University of Southern California. The following story highlights excerpts from my interview with L.A. radio host Joe Hicks, a conservative who said he intended to vote for then-presidential candidate John McCain. The story was one of the most popular on the HuffPo site at the time...

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  • So Tweet Me Maybe?

    Sep 12

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    Written by Tara Graham

    Tweets by @LilMissWordy

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    Fencing Policies is a website produced by U.C. Berkeley undergraduate student Maria Esparza during the 2013 spring semester. ACCORDING...

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Oct. 2013 — May 2016 | DIRECTOR, BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT & GLOBAL PROGRAMS
500 Startups, Silicon Valley, CA, USA

I led content, branding, marketing, operations, and partnerships for business development & events at 500 Startups. With aim to educate startup and investor audiences, grow the #500STRONG community worldwide, and produce profitable programming, my responsibilities included:

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    Medication errors have been a leading cause of preventable harm for decades best place to buy kamagra online uk. Assiri and colleagues report that the cost of medication error worldwide exceeds $42 billion, or approximately 5%–6% of best place to buy kamagra online uk all hospitalisations.1 While this topic has been closely studied since its first appearance in scientific literature in 1953,2 the problems continue to evolve alongside changes to the medication-use system. The medication-use system is a function of many elements. Widespread transitions from paper-based to electronic health records have affected drug ordering and prescribing, documentation, transcribing, dispensing, administering and monitoring in ways that challenge traditional approaches to reducing errors that predate electronic records.3 In addition, the introduction of over 7000 branded small molecules or biologics, generics and biosimilars that overlap numerous therapeutic areas increased dependence on specialty care for people with multiple chronic conditions, and navigating transitions throughout the range of primary to quaternary care have all complicated the ability of health systems to manage individual patient medication needs safely.4 Thus, solutions to address best place to buy kamagra online uk common medication errors 10 or 20 years ago may quickly become outdated in our fast-paced healthcare sector.Medication errors can either be intercepted prior to reaching the patient or produce adverse drug events (ADEs) ranging from benign to life-threatening. Concerning prevalence rates of ADEs in hospitalised patients have been reported at 3.22% in the UK, 4.78% in Germany and 5.64% in the USA.5 For a country the size of the USA, the US Food and Drug Administration reports that this rate represents over 100 000 ADEs per year.

    However, these data relate only to the best place to buy kamagra online uk more severe ADEs. Those resulting in death, a life threatening health state, hospitalisation, disability or birth defect.6 These figures therefore encapsulate pain and suffering as captured in administrative data but do not include the multitude of patients who missed one or more days of work or school, developed symptoms necessitating an outpatient or emergency room visit, induced long-term harm, or the attendant health system costs. The data therefore give only part of the overall picture.In contrast, based on a comprehensive analysis of UK data, the study by Elliott and colleagues in this issue attempts to illustrate the true full impact of medication errors and the associated risk of ADEs.7 Of the 237 million best place to buy kamagra online uk medication errors estimated to occur in England each year, 66 million are potentially clinically significant and result in 181 thousand hospital days and 1708 deaths at the cost of £98 million to the National Health Service. However, the best place to buy kamagra online uk aetiology and factors influencing medication errors that lead to these ADEs exceed ‘ubiquitous medicine use’ in the country. That is, the causes of ADEs are multifaceted.

    In this case, comprehensive improvement of the medication-use system should not be overlooked—and its multifaceted nature is likely to require the execution of quality improvement initiatives across many domains.Elliott and colleagues break down medication errors by stage within the medication-use system to highlight the degree to best place to buy kamagra online uk which these issues are multifaceted. It comes as little surprise that across primary care, secondary care and care homes, prescribing, dispensing, administration and monitoring errors are prominent. However, the degree to which data are missing is also concerning and therefore best place to buy kamagra online uk may underestimate the prevalence and costs of medication errors. How can any health system, let alone an entire National Health Service devise best practices to reduce medication errors when data that present a substantial proportion of variability in ADEs are missing?. ‘No UK data available’ in tables throughout Elliott and colleagues’ paper (ie, no comparable UK data were available for particular settings, such as care homes) is as insightful as the numbers best place to buy kamagra online uk that are displayed since it presents an opportunity to improve quality of care informed by an investment in better data, among other needs.As with any quality improvement initiative, beginning with a framework to reduce ADEs as a result of medication error requires an established structure.8 The ‘five rights’ of medication administration offer health systems one potential structure on which to ensure individuals receive the right treatment to maximise clinical benefit and minimise harm.

    The right patient, the right drug, the right dose, the right route and the right time.9 Building from these principles, it becomes apparent that methods and technologies for interdiction of medication error and preventable ADEs are still being refined along with variability best place to buy kamagra online uk in execution. Relatively simple solutions such as clear prescription labelling and safe packaging, multiple prescriber and pharmacy tracking to capture drug interaction risk, along with information sharing and advances in drug therapy stewardship, are examples of processes around which to build a quality improvement programme from the five rights structure that may achieve reduced rates of ADEs.4 Further targeting of these improvements within health system components where medication errors are most common, such as ambulatory and primary care settings and transitions of care, would represent efficient use of healthcare resources to reduce ADEs.1By addressing issues in primary care and outpatient settings, the healthcare sector would also minimise the number of ADEs that result in more expensive secondary, tertiary and quaternary care, thereby increasing the probability of additional drug–drug interactions or other risks of medication errors. Further to this are settings and spaces where prescription practices are engaged, fulfilled best place to buy kamagra online uk and monitored. Providers and pharmacists rarely coexist in the same clinical settings in primary, outpatient and ambulatory care as they do in tertiary and quaternary care where the medical community has already recognised the importance of including pharmacists in patient rounds to review and reconcile medication errors.10 Past studies have noted that when the pharmacist is part of a clinical team to address patient needs within complex medication strategies, reductions in ADEs can be achieved throughout various healthcare settings.11–13 While the physically aligned presence of providers and pharmacists may not be as straightforward to facilitate in primary and outpatient care, increased telecommunication throughout the medication use process, including computer order entry and medication reconciliation, could resolve issues that may otherwise lead to medication errors and subsequent ADEs.As the research of Elliott et al7 and other findings highlight, ADEs are a costly, harmful issue that remains prevalent in global healthcare. The added complexity created by layering healthcare delivery across many settings of primary and specialty care creates gaps in best place to buy kamagra online uk communication where prescribers lack means or availability to actively communicate with pharmacists to identify and resolve potential medication errors.

    The sheer increase in volumes of prescription medications that outpaces process efficiencies also challenges the ability of these two stakeholders to communicate directly on a per-patient basis. However, medication reviews focused on patients who take multiple prescriptions, have debilitating long-term conditions or have recently experienced acute decompensation that could make them particularly vulnerable to repeat episodes are an important focus for whom to narrow the degree of communication by default best place to buy kamagra online uk over medication review.14Beyond these suggestions for quality improvement based on current information, the study by Elliott and colleagues highlights the need for additional data to further direct efforts towards efficient means of sustaining reduced ADE rates. Missing data are prevalent throughout the field of ADE outcomes, either because medication errors fail to meet the threshold that institutions such as the US Food and Drug Administration set for a sentinel event or because best place to buy kamagra online uk such errors go completely unnoticed without being recorded as an episode within the health system. Many nations facing the reality of spending millions on ADEs could more proactively invest in improved reporting systems to precisely capture medication errors data, and which instances lead to minor as opposed to major ADEs, and the systems and clinical factors predicting them. These investments in better and broader data collection and quality best place to buy kamagra online uk improvement programme implementation often frighten away health system directors who fail to recognise the balance between action and reaction.

    Elliott and colleagues’ expected value of the economic burden of ADE is almost certainly an underestimate. If much of the data on ADEs are best place to buy kamagra online uk missing from the UK system, especially at transitions of care, and other ADEs go under-reported, then the current estimate of £98 million per annum is lower than the true medical and societal cost of this issue, including non-monetary clinical disutility. The alternative cost scenario that Elliott and colleagues present in the range of £728 million per annum is perhaps a more realistic figure and one that justifies spending on quality improvement programming to offset hundreds of millions in avoidable costs.Thus, reporting systems that captures a wider range of ADEs, coupled with improved modes of communication between providers and pharmacists, as well as a systematic effort to conduct root cause analysis that assist health systems to identify the nature of ADEs and evaluate potential solutions, are possibly cost-effective investments.15 The value of this information is imperative to inform more elaborate systems of medication management and target points of communication between providers and pharmacists to reconcile potential instances of medication error.16 Putting a learning health system model into place such as this—perhaps facilitated by machine learning—makes it more likely that damaging medication errors become more a part of our past history than an issue that the medical literature continues to review..

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    People hospitalized with erectile dysfunction treatment and neurological problems including stroke and confusion, have a higher risk of dying than other erectile dysfunction treatment patients, according to a study published online today by researchers at Montefiore Health System and Albert Einstein College kamagra oral jelly price of Medicine in the journal Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. These findings have the potential to identify and focus treatment efforts on individuals most at risk and could decrease erectile dysfunction treatment deaths.The study kamagra oral jelly price looked at data from 4,711 erectile dysfunction treatment patients who were admitted to Montefiore during the six-week period between March 1, 2020 and April 16, 2020. Of those patients, 581 (12%) had kamagra oral jelly price neurological problems serious enough to warrant brain imaging.

    These individuals were compared with 1,743 non-neurological erectile dysfunction treatment patients of similar age and disease severity who were admitted during the same period."This study is the first to show that the presence of neurological symptoms, particularly stroke and confused or altered thinking, may kamagra oral jelly price indicate a more serious course of illness, even when pulmonary problems aren't severe," said David Altschul, M.D., chief of the division of neurovascular surgery at Einstein and Montefiore and associate professor in the Leo M. Davidoff Department of Neurological Surgery kamagra oral jelly price and of radiology at Einstein. "Hospitals can use this knowledge to prioritize treatment and, hopefully, save more lives during this kamagra oral jelly price kamagra."Among people who underwent brain imaging, 55 were diagnosed with stroke and 258 people exhibited confusion or altered thinking ability.

    Individuals with stroke were twice as kamagra oral jelly price likely to die (49% mortality) compared with their matched controls (24% mortality) -- a statistically significant difference. People with confusion had a 40% mortality rate compared with 33% for their matched controls -- also statistically significant.More than kamagra oral jelly price half the stroke patients in the study did not have hypertension or other underlying risk factors for stroke. "This highly unusual finding agrees with other studies of people with erectile dysfunction treatment in suggesting that with the novel erectile dysfunction kamagra oral jelly price is itself a risk factor for stroke," said Dr.

    Altschul, who is also surgical director of the Montefiore Comprehensive Center for Stroke Care, and the study co- author, along with Emad Eskandar, M.D., M.B.A., chair of neurological surgery at Einstein and Montefiore, professor in the Leo M. Davidoff Department of Neurological Surgery, kamagra oral jelly price the department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, in the Dominick P. Purpura Department kamagra oral jelly price of Neuroscience at Einstein.

    Dr. Eskandar also holds the Jeffrey P. Bergstein Chair and the David B.

    Keidan Chair in Neurological Surgery.The paper is titled, "Neurologic Syndromes Predict Higher In-Hospital Mortality in erectile dysfunction treatment." The senior author was Mark Mehler, M.D., professor and chair of the Saul R. Korey Department of Neurology at Einstein and Montefiore, professor of neuroscience and of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, director of the Institute for Brain Disorders and Neural Regeneration, and the Alpern Family Foundation Chair in Cerebral Palsy Research.Charles Esenwa, M.D., assistant professor of neurology, and Daniel Labovitz, M.D., associate professor of neurology and of medicine, played a major role in selecting participants for the study.Additional Einstein-Montefiore authors are. Rafael de La Garza Ramos, M.D., Phillip Cezayirli, M.D., Santiago R Unda, M.D., Joshua Benton, B.A., Joseph Dardick, B.A., Aureliana Toma, M.D., Nikunj Patel, B.A., Avinash Malaviya, B.A., M.S., David Flomenbaum, B.S., Jenelys Fernandez-Torres, B.A., Jenny Lu, B.A., Ryan Holland, M.D., Elisabetta Burchi, M.D., Richard Zampolin, M.D., Kevin Hsu, M.D., Andrew McClelland, M.D., Judah Burns, M.D., Amichai Erdfarb, M.D., Rishi Malhotra, M.D., Michelle Gong, M.D., Peter Semczuk, D.D.S., M.P.H., Victor Ferastraoaru, M.D., Jillian Rosengard, M.D., Daniel Antoniello, M.D., Mark Milstein, M.D., and Alexis Boro, M.DWhile the erectile dysfunction kamagra has dominated the news this past year, researchers continue to study the health effects of the Zika kamagra, which has been reported in 86 countries globally.The Zika kamagra is primarily transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito from the Aedes genus.

    However, it can also be passed through sexual contact, blood transfusions, organ transplants, and between mother and baby during pregnancy. The kamagra has been documented to cause a range of birth defects, including microcephaly and various neurological, musculoskeletal, and eye abnormalities.A new study from Glenn Yiu, associate professor in the Department of Ophthalmology, and Koen Van Rompay, a core scientist at the California National Primate Research Center, found that Zika during the first trimester of pregnancy can impact fetal retinal development and cause congenital ocular anomalies. The kamagra does not appear to affect ocular growth postnatally, however."It has been known that congenital with the Zika kamagra can lead to eye defects, but it was unclear if the kamagra continues to replicate or affect eye development after birth," Yiu said.

    "Our study in rhesus monkeys suggest that the kamagra primarily affects fetal development during pregnancy, but not the growth of eye after birth."In this collaboration between the UC Davis Eye Center and the California National Primate Research Center, two pregnant rhesus monkeys were infected with Zika kamagra late in the first trimester. The ocular development of the Zika-exposed infants was then studied for two years following their birth.Ocular birth defectsThe Zika-exposed infant monkeys did not display microcephaly or apparent neurological or behavioral deficits. The infants did exhibit several ocular birth defects, however.

    The defects included large colobomas, a missing gap in the eye due to abnormal development. The Zika-exposed infant monkeys also exhibited a loss of photoreceptors -- the light-sensing cells of the retina -- and retinal ganglion neuron, which helps transmit visual information to the brain.Despite congenital ocular malformations at birth, their eyes appeared to follow normal development during their first two years.The findings suggest that ocular defects due to Zika primarily occur in utero and likely do not have a continued impact on ocular development after birth.Rhesus macaques are natural hosts of the kamagra and share similar immune and ocular characteristics to humans, including blood-retinal barrier characteristics and the unique presence of a macula, making them superior animal models of the than typical laboratory animals like mice and rats. The findings were published in JCI Insight, an open-access peer-reviewed journal dedicated to biomedical research.

    Story Source. Materials provided by University of California - Davis. Original written by Lisa Howard.

    Note. Content may be edited for style and length.A University of Arkansas biologist is part of a global team of researchers developing a strategy to detect and intercept diseases emerging from wildlife in Africa that could eventually infect humans.Assistant professor Kristian Forbes, along with colleagues from Africa, Europe and North America, have proposed a four-part approach to detect and contain zoonotic diseases, those that begin in animals but spillover into humans, like erectile dysfunction treatment and HIV."A lot of research effort to prepare against the threat of novel disease emergences of wildlife kamagraes has been to identify unknown kamagraes in wildlife that might someday infect humans," Forbes said. "These efforts have been very successful for identifying new kamagraes.

    Indeed, thousands have been discovered, but we don't currently have the tools to know which of them pose the most immediate risks to human health."To enable fast detection of new zoonotic disease outbreaks, the team proposes a system of procuring and screening samples from hospital patients with fevers of unknown origin, analyzing samples from suspicious fatalities of unknown cause, testing blood serum in high-risk or sentinel groups and analyzing samples that have already been collected and archived. The team outlined their approach in a recent article published in the journal The Lancet Microbe.None of these methods are new, Forbes said. But to date they have not been combined into a continent-wide program aimed at rapid detection."Given limitations to the current model for preventing disease emergences, our article focuses on a coordinated and widespread strategy for early detection so that novel disease outbreaks can be intercepted before they potentially become global kamagras." Story Source.

    Materials provided by University of Arkansas. Note. Content may be edited for style and length.erectile dysfunctiones like the one that causes erectile dysfunction treatment are studded with protein "spikes" that bind with receptors on the cells of their victims -- the first step in .

    Now scientists have made the first detailed images of those spikes in their natural state, while still attached to the kamagra and without using chemical fixatives that might distort their shape.They say their method, which combines cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and computation, should produce quicker and more realistic snapshots of the apparatus in various strains of erectile dysfunction, a critical step in designing therapeutic drugs and treatments."The advantage of doing it this way is that when you purify a spike protein and study it in isolation, you lose important biological context. How does it look in an intact kamagra particle?. It could possibly have a different structure there," said Wah Chiu, a professor at DOE's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University and senior author of the study.

    They described their results in Quarterly Reviews Biophysics Discovery.Seven strains of erectile dysfunctiones are known to infect humans. Four cause relatively mild illnesses. The other three -- including erectile dysfunction, the kamagra that causes erectile dysfunction treatment -- can be deadly, said co-author Jing Jin, an expert in the molecular biology of kamagraes at Vitalant Research Institute in San Francisco.

    Scientists at Vitalant hunt for kamagraes in blood and stool samples from humans and animals, screen blood samples during outbreaks like the current kamagra, and study interactions between kamagraes and their hosts.The kamagra that causes erectile dysfunction treatment is so virulent that there are only a few cryo-EM labs in the world that can study it with a high enough level of biosafety controls, Jin said. So for this study, the research team looked at a much milder erectile dysfunction strain called NL63, which causes common cold symptoms and is responsible for about 10% of human respiratory disease each year. It's thought to attach to the same receptors on the surfaces of human cells as the erectile dysfunction treatment kamagra does.Rather than chemically removing and purifying NL63's spike proteins, the researchers flash-froze whole, intact kamagraes into a glassy state that preserves the natural arrangement of their components.

    Then they made thousands of detailed images of randomly oriented kamagraes using cryo-EM instruments at the Stanford-SLAC Cryo-EM Facilities, digitally extracted the bits that contained spike proteins, and combined them to get high-resolution pictures."The structure we saw had exactly the same structure as it does on the kamagra surface, free of chemical artifacts," Jin said. "This had not been done before."The team also identified places where sugar molecules attach to the spike protein in a process called glycosylation, which plays an important role in the kamagra's life cycle and in its ability to evade the immune system. Their map included three glycosylation sites that had been predicted but never directly seen before.Although a German group has used a similar method to digitally extract images of the spike protein from erectile dysfunction, Jin said, they had to fix the kamagra in formaldehyde first so there would be no danger of it infecting anyone, and this treatment may cause chemical changes that interfere with seeing the true structure.Going forward, she said, the team would like to find out how the part of the spike that binds to receptors on human cells is activated, and also use the same technique to study spike proteins from the kamagra that causes erectile dysfunction treatment, which would require specialized biohazard containment facilities.The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health and by the DOE Office of Science through the National Virtual Biotechnology Laboratory, a consortium of DOE national laboratories focused on response to erectile dysfunction treatment, with funding provided by the erectile dysfunction CARES Act.

    Story Source. Materials provided by DOE/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Original written by Glennda Chui.

    Note. Content may be edited for style and length..

    People hospitalized with erectile dysfunction treatment and neurological problems including stroke and confusion, have a higher risk of dying than other erectile dysfunction treatment patients, according to a Best place to buy amoxil online study best place to buy kamagra online uk published online today by researchers at Montefiore Health System and Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the journal Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. These findings have the potential best place to buy kamagra online uk to identify and focus treatment efforts on individuals most at risk and could decrease erectile dysfunction treatment deaths.The study looked at data from 4,711 erectile dysfunction treatment patients who were admitted to Montefiore during the six-week period between March 1, 2020 and April 16, 2020. Of those patients, 581 (12%) best place to buy kamagra online uk had neurological problems serious enough to warrant brain imaging. These individuals were compared with 1,743 non-neurological erectile dysfunction treatment patients of similar age and disease severity who were admitted during the same period."This study is the first to show that the presence of neurological symptoms, particularly stroke and confused or altered thinking, may indicate a more serious course of illness, even when pulmonary problems aren't severe," said David Altschul, M.D., chief of the division of neurovascular surgery at Einstein and Montefiore and best place to buy kamagra online uk associate professor in the Leo M. Davidoff Department of Neurological Surgery and of radiology at Einstein best place to buy kamagra online uk.

    "Hospitals can use this knowledge to prioritize treatment and, hopefully, save more lives during this kamagra."Among people who underwent brain best place to buy kamagra online uk imaging, 55 were diagnosed with stroke and 258 people exhibited confusion or altered thinking ability. Individuals with stroke were twice as likely to die (49% mortality) compared with best place to buy kamagra online uk their matched controls (24% mortality) -- a statistically significant difference. People with confusion had a 40% mortality rate compared with 33% for their matched controls -- also statistically significant.More best place to buy kamagra online uk than half the stroke patients in the study did not have hypertension or other underlying risk factors for stroke. "This highly unusual finding agrees with other studies of people with erectile dysfunction treatment in suggesting that with the novel erectile dysfunction is itself a risk factor for stroke," said Dr best place to buy kamagra online uk. Altschul, who is also surgical director of the Montefiore Comprehensive Center for Stroke Care, and the study co- author, along with Emad Eskandar, M.D., M.B.A., chair of neurological surgery at Einstein and Montefiore, professor in the Leo M.

    Davidoff Department of Neurological Surgery, the department of psychiatry and behavioral best place to buy kamagra online uk sciences, in the Dominick P. Purpura Department best place to buy kamagra online uk of Neuroscience at Einstein. Dr. Eskandar also holds the Jeffrey P. Bergstein Chair and the David B.

    Keidan Chair in Neurological Surgery.The paper is titled, "Neurologic Syndromes Predict Higher In-Hospital Mortality in erectile dysfunction treatment." The senior author was Mark Mehler, M.D., professor and chair of the Saul R. Korey Department of Neurology at Einstein and Montefiore, professor of neuroscience and of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, director of the Institute for Brain Disorders and Neural Regeneration, and the Alpern Family Foundation Chair in Cerebral Palsy Research.Charles Esenwa, M.D., assistant professor of neurology, and Daniel Labovitz, M.D., associate professor of neurology and of medicine, played a major role in selecting participants for the study.Additional Einstein-Montefiore authors are. Rafael de La Garza Ramos, M.D., Phillip Cezayirli, M.D., Santiago R Unda, M.D., Joshua Benton, B.A., Joseph Dardick, B.A., Aureliana Toma, M.D., Nikunj Patel, B.A., Avinash Malaviya, B.A., M.S., David Flomenbaum, B.S., Jenelys Fernandez-Torres, B.A., Jenny Lu, B.A., Ryan Holland, M.D., Elisabetta Burchi, M.D., Richard Zampolin, M.D., Kevin Hsu, M.D., Andrew McClelland, M.D., Judah Burns, M.D., Amichai Erdfarb, M.D., Rishi Malhotra, M.D., Michelle Gong, M.D., Peter Semczuk, D.D.S., M.P.H., Victor Ferastraoaru, M.D., Jillian Rosengard, M.D., Daniel Antoniello, M.D., Mark Milstein, M.D., and Alexis Boro, M.DWhile the erectile dysfunction kamagra has dominated the news this past year, researchers continue to study the health effects of the Zika kamagra, which has been reported in 86 countries globally.The Zika kamagra is primarily transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito from the Aedes genus. However, it can also be passed through sexual contact, blood transfusions, organ transplants, and between mother and baby during pregnancy. The kamagra has been documented to cause a range of birth defects, including microcephaly and various neurological, musculoskeletal, and eye abnormalities.A new study from Glenn Yiu, associate professor in the Department of Ophthalmology, and Koen Van Rompay, a core scientist at the California National Primate Research Center, found that Zika during the first trimester of pregnancy can impact fetal retinal development and cause congenital ocular anomalies.

    The kamagra does not appear to affect ocular growth postnatally, however."It has been known that congenital with the Zika kamagra can lead to eye defects, but it was unclear if the kamagra continues to replicate or affect eye development after birth," Yiu said. "Our study in rhesus monkeys suggest that the kamagra primarily affects fetal development during pregnancy, but not the growth of eye after birth."In this collaboration between the UC Davis Eye Center and the California National Primate Research Center, two pregnant rhesus monkeys were infected with Zika kamagra late in the first trimester. The ocular development of the Zika-exposed infants was then studied for two years following their birth.Ocular birth defectsThe Zika-exposed infant monkeys did not display microcephaly or apparent neurological or behavioral deficits. The infants did exhibit several ocular birth defects, however. The defects included large colobomas, a missing gap in the eye due to abnormal development.

    The Zika-exposed infant monkeys also exhibited a loss of photoreceptors -- the light-sensing cells of the retina -- and retinal ganglion neuron, which helps transmit visual information to the brain.Despite congenital ocular malformations at birth, their eyes appeared to follow normal development during their first two years.The findings suggest that ocular defects due to Zika primarily occur in utero and likely do not have a continued impact on ocular development after birth.Rhesus macaques are natural hosts of the kamagra and share similar immune and ocular characteristics to humans, including blood-retinal barrier characteristics and the unique presence of a macula, making them superior animal models of the than typical laboratory animals like mice and rats. The findings were published in JCI Insight, an open-access peer-reviewed journal dedicated to biomedical research. Story Source. Materials provided by University of California - Davis. Original written by Lisa Howard.

    Note. Content may be edited for style and length.A University of Arkansas biologist is part of a global team of researchers developing a strategy to detect and intercept diseases emerging from wildlife in Africa that could eventually infect humans.Assistant professor Kristian Forbes, along with colleagues from Africa, Europe and North America, have proposed a four-part approach to detect and contain zoonotic diseases, those that begin in animals but spillover into humans, like erectile dysfunction treatment and HIV."A lot of research effort to prepare against the threat of novel disease emergences of wildlife kamagraes has been to identify unknown kamagraes in wildlife that might someday infect humans," Forbes said. "These efforts have been very successful for identifying new kamagraes. Indeed, thousands have been discovered, but we don't currently have the tools to know which of them pose the most immediate risks to human health."To enable fast detection of new zoonotic disease outbreaks, the team proposes a system of procuring and screening samples from hospital patients with fevers of unknown origin, analyzing samples from suspicious fatalities of unknown cause, testing blood serum in high-risk or sentinel groups and analyzing samples that have already been collected and archived. The team outlined their approach in a recent article published in the journal The Lancet Microbe.None of these methods are new, Forbes said.

    But to date they have not been combined into a continent-wide program aimed at rapid detection."Given limitations to the current model for preventing disease emergences, our article focuses on a coordinated and widespread strategy for early detection so that novel disease outbreaks can be intercepted before they potentially become global kamagras." Story Source. Materials provided by University of Arkansas. Note. Content may be edited for style and length.erectile dysfunctiones like the one that causes erectile dysfunction treatment are studded with protein "spikes" that bind with receptors on the cells of their victims -- the first step in . Now scientists have made the first detailed images of those spikes in their natural state, while still attached to the kamagra and without using chemical fixatives that might distort their shape.They say their method, which combines cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and computation, should produce quicker and more realistic snapshots of the apparatus in various strains of erectile dysfunction, a critical step in designing therapeutic drugs and treatments."The advantage of doing it this way is that when you purify a spike protein and study it in isolation, you lose important biological context.

    How does it look in an intact kamagra particle?. It could possibly have a different structure there," said Wah Chiu, a professor at DOE's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University and senior author of the study. They described their results in Quarterly Reviews Biophysics Discovery.Seven strains of erectile dysfunctiones are known to infect humans. Four cause relatively mild illnesses. The other three -- including erectile dysfunction, the kamagra that causes erectile dysfunction treatment -- can be deadly, said co-author Jing Jin, an expert in the molecular biology of kamagraes at Vitalant Research Institute in San Francisco.

    Scientists at Vitalant hunt for kamagraes in blood and stool samples from humans and animals, screen blood samples during outbreaks like the current kamagra, and study interactions between kamagraes and their hosts.The kamagra that causes erectile dysfunction treatment is so virulent that there are only a few cryo-EM labs in the world that can study it with a high enough level of biosafety controls, Jin said. So for this study, the research team looked at a much milder erectile dysfunction strain called NL63, which causes common cold symptoms and is responsible for about 10% of human respiratory disease each year. It's thought to attach to the same receptors on the surfaces of human cells as the erectile dysfunction treatment kamagra does.Rather than chemically removing and purifying NL63's spike proteins, the researchers flash-froze whole, intact kamagraes into a glassy state that preserves the natural arrangement of their components. Then they made thousands of detailed images of randomly oriented kamagraes using cryo-EM instruments at the Stanford-SLAC Cryo-EM Facilities, digitally extracted the bits that contained spike proteins, and combined them to get high-resolution pictures."The structure we saw had exactly the same structure as it does on the kamagra surface, free of chemical artifacts," Jin said. "This had not been done before."The team also identified places where sugar molecules attach to the spike protein in a process called glycosylation, which plays an important role in the kamagra's life cycle and in its ability to evade the immune system.

    Their map included three glycosylation sites that had been predicted but never directly seen before.Although a German group has used a similar method to digitally extract images of the spike protein from erectile dysfunction, Jin said, they had to fix the kamagra in formaldehyde first so there would be no danger of it infecting anyone, and this treatment may cause chemical changes that interfere with seeing the true structure.Going forward, she said, the team would like to find out how the part of the spike that binds to receptors on human cells is activated, and also use the same technique to study spike proteins from the kamagra that causes erectile dysfunction treatment, which would require specialized biohazard containment facilities.The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health and by the DOE Office of Science through the National Virtual Biotechnology Laboratory, a consortium of DOE national laboratories focused on response to erectile dysfunction treatment, with funding provided by the erectile dysfunction CARES Act. Story Source. Materials provided by DOE/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Original written by Glennda Chui. Note.

    Content may be edited for style and length..

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    In the course of just under two months that visit homepage started where to buy kamagra 40 years ago this week, five events occurred that shaped the biotechnology industry and bioscience research. Looking back on these seminal events is a reminder of the odd ways in which change happens.Event 1. A Nobel PrizeEarly in the morning where to buy kamagra of Tuesday, October 14, 1980, the phone rang at Paul Berg’s house in Stanford, Cal. The jangling phone worried Berg and his wife because Berg’s father was old and ill, and they feared the worst.

    Instead, Berg heard the voice of his Stanford colleague, Arthur Kornberg, telling him that Paul had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. The Swedish Royal Academy had been unable to find Berg’s unlisted phone number, but one of Kornberg’s sons had heard the news very early in the morning on the radio and called his father, who called Berg.Berg won half of that year’s prize for basic research into nucleic acids and for “certain aspects of recombinant DNA.” The other half was shared by Frederick Sanger and Walter (Wally) where to buy kamagra Gilbert for their discoveries about how to sequence DNA.advertisement Many scientists, at Stanford and elsewhere, made important contributions to the development of recombinant DNA. Some have questioned why Berg was the sole recipient. The prizes are always difficult to award, particularly with the Nobel Committee’s self-imposed limit of no more than three awardees for any prize where to buy kamagra (except for the Peace Prize).Once the chemistry committee decided to recognize Sanger and Gilbert for sequencing — each had made substantial progress in very different ways — that left only one slot for recombinant DNA.

    No one doubts that Berg and his lab made major contributions to the field and were driving forces in its advance. But Berg had another role that made him stand out from the crowd. He was a leader, arguably the leader, in organizing a temporary moratorium on recombinant DNA research and in organizing where to buy kamagra and running the famous Asilomar conference on recombinant DNA at which the moratorium was discussed.advertisement Event 2. A biotech IPOAround the same time Berg was learning he had won a Nobel Prize, the common stock of a 4-year-old biotech company named Genentech made its initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange.

    Genentech’s business was based on recombinant DNA and its first products (still two years in the future at that point) were human proteins made by bacteria into which human genes had been slipped using where to buy kamagra recombinant DNA techniques. When the market opened, the stock traded for $35 per share. By the end of the day investors had blasted its price higher — all the way up to $88 per share — before closing at $71.The first biotech boom was on, leading many other fledgling biotech startups to go public in the next few months. Did Genentech’s impressive IPO owe any of where to buy kamagra its oomph to that morning’s announcement of Berg’s Nobel Prize for recombinant DNA?.

    We can never know.Event 3. A new innovation lawExactly one week later, where to buy kamagra on October 21, President Jimmy Carter signed into law the Stevenson Wydler Technology Innovation Act. It responded to concerns that government-sponsored technologies were not being commercialized frequently enough. The act encouraged U.S.

    National laboratories, such as Fermilab, Brookhaven, Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, among others, to spread information about government-owned technology, in part by requiring them to establish Offices of Research and Technology Applications where to buy kamagra that were to identify and promote technologies with strong commercial potential. The Carter administration supported this bill in part because it kept control over who would commercialize those new technologies in the hands of the federal government.This is the least important of the five events for biotechnology. The National Labs, though engaged in a surprising amount of biological research for organizations derived from nuclear weapons research, were not where to buy kamagra then hotbeds of bioscience and biotech innovation. Event 4.

    A game-changing patentTuesday, December 2, marked the fourth, quietest, but not the least important of this string of biotech events. The U.S where to buy kamagra. Patent and Trademark Office granted U.S. Patent No where to buy kamagra.

    4,237,224, “Process for producing biologically functional molecular chimera,” to two inventors, Stanley N. Cohen of Stanford and Herbert W. Boyer of the University where to buy kamagra of California, San Francisco. The patent was assigned to Leland Stanford Junior University and the Regents of the University of California.

    As my colleague Jacob Sherkow and I wrote in 2015:“That patent, the result of research conducted in 1974 on a process of creating recombinant DNA, i.e., recombining where to buy kamagra genes, appeared to be the holy grail for geneticists. Rather than tedious mutational or crossbreeding studies, the Cohen-Boyer technology allowed genetics researchers to study — and create — genes in isolation. With increasing research into the function and characterization of restriction enzymes, recombinant DNA technology opened doors for researchers to both isolate and purify individual genes as well as create analogs of their own.”I haven’t been able to find any significant publicity about this patent around the time it was awarded, but for the next two decades the Cohen-Boyer patent formed the cornerstone of both the biotech industry and of much biological research. It broadly claimed the methods where to buy kamagra of recombinant DNA and earned its assignees about $400 million.Stanford administered the Cohen-Boyer patent and took 15% of the proceeds for its trouble.

    The remainder was split evenly by Stanford and the University of California system, which distributed them in different ways. Stanford’s practice was (and remains) to give one-third where to buy kamagra of the proceeds to the inventor, one-third to the inventor’s department, and one-third to the inventor’s school. This bonanza for Stanford Medical School’s genetics department, of which Cohen was a member — about $70 million — did not endear it to Berg’s and Kornberg’s biochemistry department, which had done, in Berg’s lab and elsewhere, much of the research on recombinant DNA. On the other hand, the genetics department had been none too pleased by who had (and had not) received the Nobel Prize.It isn’t clear to me if anyone fully realized at the time the patent was granted how important — or lucrative — it would be.

    Eventually, though, the Cohen-Boyer patent helped change how universities approached where to buy kamagra commercializing research. Its large returns prompted first scores, and then hundreds, of colleges and universities to open technology licensing offices. Today about 200 such offices exist, although only about a dozen are profitable in any given year (and these are largely the same ones every year, including Stanford’s and the where to buy kamagra University of California’s). Event 5.

    Bayh-Dole becomes lawThe fifth and final event took place on Friday, December 12, when then-lame duck President Jimmy Carter signed the Patent and Trademark Law Amendments Act, better known as the Bayh-Dole Act. This law gave universities and other nonprofit research institutions a clear and easy way to own intellectual where to buy kamagra property they created, in whole or in part, with federal research funding. It is often credited with having kickstarted the biotech industry. Along with the success of where to buy kamagra the Cohen-Boyer patent, it certainly encouraged universities to view some parts of biology as potential profit centers.But it almost didn’t come to fruition.

    When Indiana Democrat Senator Birch Bayh and Kansas Republican Senator Bob Dole first introduced into the 95th Congress the Small Business Nonprofit Organization Patent Procedures Act, it was a time of great concern about America’s economy, beset by the 1970s “stagflation” and the perceived economic challenge from Japan.Congress did not act on the bill that year, but Bayh and Dole re-introduced it in the 96th Congress. Although Democrats controlled both the Senate and the House, President Carter opposed the bill. He wanted a more government-directed path, like the approach taken in where to buy kamagra the Stevenson-Wydler Act. Russell Long (D-La.), the powerful chair of the Senate Finance Committee, opposed the bill from a more populist perspective.

    He wanted the government to get as much profit as possible from any patents where to buy kamagra. The bill did not pass either chamber before the November 1980 election.That election brought Ronald Reagan to the White House and also cost the Democrats 12 Senate seats, which would give the Republicans in the 97th Congress, starting in January 1981, their first Senate majority since 1954. One of the Democrats who would not be returning to the Senate was Birch Bayh, defeated by future Vice President Dan Quayle.The 96th Congress, still with a majority Democratic Senate, held a lame-duck session after the November election, one of 16 such sessions in the 39 Congresses since 1940. The urgency for it came from the lack of budget authority for most of where to buy kamagra the government, but also for some other important, difficult, and controversial legislation that had been put off until after the election.Strong support for Bayh-Dole in their ranks kept the soon-to-be majority Senate Republicans from opposing its passage.

    But for the bill to be voted on in that session required unanimous consent of the Senate — which meant a thumbs up from Long. He acquiesced, supposedly where to buy kamagra out of respect and friendship for his departing colleague, Birch Bayh.President Carter did not give any indication whether he would sign the bill. The Constitution gives a president 10 days (not counting Sundays) to veto a bill, sign a bill, or let it become law without his signature. On the last possible day, December 12, Carter signed it.It is ironic that the Cohen-Boyer patent was issued and assigned to Stanford and UCSF before Bayh-Dole made it easier for universities to patent inventions that had benefited from federal funding.

    Both institutions had used money from the NIH where to buy kamagra and private foundations in the relevant recombinant DNA research, but they did not have to wait for Bayh-Dole’s passage to patent the invention. A pre-existing patent agreement existed between the federal Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (the precursor of the Department of Health and Human Services) and Stanford’s Office of Technology Licensing that allowed Stanford and UCSF to patent the technology before Bayh-Dole took effect.So in two days short of two months, the nascent biotech industry and university biotechnology research were propelled into the future with a Nobel prize, a stunning biotech IPO, two research commercialization acts, and a fundamental patent. And no one at the time where to buy kamagra seemed to notice their collective importance. True, there were other things going on then.

    During the first three weeks, Republican Ronald Reagan, who at the time seemed to be at the conservative extreme of American politics, was challenging moderately conservative Democrat Jimmy Carter, and on November 4 defeated Carter after only one term in office. For the entire period, where to buy kamagra 53 U.S. Diplomats and citizens from the American Embassy in Tehran, Iran, were being held captive, marking their first full year of detention in early November. The economy was still reeling from the second oil crisis and its resulting high inflation (and was about to plunge into a sharp recession).In the midst of all that, largely unnoticed, the building blocks of a new era in biotechnology came together.And so it often is with where to buy kamagra history.

    Some crucial events are obvious. Others sneak up on us. And blatant or obscure, through all these momentous historical periods, we go on with our day-to-day jobs, loves, and lives, only rarely looking back and noticing the times in which we lived — sometimes where to buy kamagra only after 40 years.Henry T. Greely, J.D., is professor of law and professor by courtesy of genetics at Stanford University, where he directs the Stanford Center for Law and the Biosciences and chairs the steering committee for the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics.

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    Our award-winning team covers news on Wall Street, policy developments in Washington, early science breakthroughs and clinical trial results, and health care disruption in Silicon Valley and beyond. What's included?. Daily reporting and analysis The most comprehensive industry coverage from a powerhouse team of reporters Subscriber-only newsletters Daily newsletters to brief you on the most important industry news of the day STAT+ Conversations Weekly opportunities to engage with our reporters and leading industry experts in live video conversations Exclusive industry events Premium access to subscriber-only networking events around the country The best reporters in the industry The most trusted and well-connected newsroom in the health care industry And much more Exclusive interviews with industry leaders, profiles, and premium tools, like our CRISPR Trackr.Disarm Therapeutics, a Cambridge biotechnology firm working on new potential drugs for neurological diseases such as ALS and multiple sclerosis, will be bought by the pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly and Company for $135 million up front.Under the deal announced Thursday, investors in the four-year-old, privately held biotech could reap up to $1.225 billion in additional payments, depending on how well Lilly does developing and marketing new medicines resulting from the acquisition. Unlock this article by subscribing to STAT Plus and enjoy your first 30 days free!.

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    In the course of just under two months that started 40 http://www.em-ebersheim.ac-strasbourg.fr/reglement-interieur/ years ago this week, five events occurred that shaped the biotechnology industry best place to buy kamagra online uk and bioscience research. Looking back on these seminal events is a reminder of the odd ways in which change happens.Event 1. A Nobel PrizeEarly in the morning of Tuesday, October 14, 1980, the phone rang at Paul Berg’s best place to buy kamagra online uk house in Stanford, Cal. The jangling phone worried Berg and his wife because Berg’s father was old and ill, and they feared the worst. Instead, Berg heard the voice of his Stanford colleague, Arthur Kornberg, telling him that Paul had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

    The Swedish Royal Academy had been unable to find Berg’s unlisted phone number, but one of Kornberg’s sons had heard the news very early in the morning on the radio and called his father, who called Berg.Berg won half of that year’s best place to buy kamagra online uk prize for basic research into nucleic acids and for “certain aspects of recombinant DNA.” The other half was shared by Frederick Sanger and Walter (Wally) Gilbert for their discoveries about how to sequence DNA.advertisement Many scientists, at Stanford and elsewhere, made important contributions to the development of recombinant DNA. Some have questioned why Berg was the sole recipient. The prizes are always difficult to award, particularly with the Nobel Committee’s self-imposed limit of no more than three awardees for any prize (except best place to buy kamagra online uk for the Peace Prize).Once the chemistry committee decided to recognize Sanger and Gilbert for sequencing — each had made substantial progress in very different ways — that left only one slot for recombinant DNA. No one doubts that Berg and his lab made major contributions to the field and were driving forces in its advance. But Berg had another role that made him stand out from the crowd.

    He was a leader, arguably the leader, in organizing a best place to buy kamagra online uk temporary moratorium on recombinant DNA research and in organizing and running the famous Asilomar conference on recombinant DNA at which the moratorium was discussed.advertisement Event 2. A biotech IPOAround the same time Berg was learning he had won a Nobel Prize, the common stock of a 4-year-old biotech company named Genentech made its initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. Genentech’s business was based on recombinant DNA and its first products (still two years in the best place to buy kamagra online uk future at that point) were human proteins made by bacteria into which human genes had been slipped using recombinant DNA techniques. When the market opened, the stock traded for $35 per share. By the end of the day investors had blasted its price higher — all the way up to $88 per share — before closing at $71.The first biotech boom was on, leading many other fledgling biotech startups to go public in the next few months.

    Did Genentech’s impressive IPO owe any of its oomph to that morning’s announcement of Berg’s Nobel Prize for recombinant best place to buy kamagra online uk DNA?. We can never know.Event 3. A new innovation lawExactly one week later, on October 21, President Jimmy Carter signed into law the best place to buy kamagra online uk Stevenson Wydler Technology Innovation Act. It responded to concerns that government-sponsored technologies were not being commercialized frequently enough. The act encouraged U.S.

    National laboratories, such as Fermilab, Brookhaven, Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, among best place to buy kamagra online uk others, to spread information about government-owned technology, in part by requiring them to establish Offices of Research and Technology Applications that were to identify and promote technologies with strong commercial potential. The Carter administration supported this bill in part because it kept control over who would commercialize those new technologies in the hands of the federal government.This is the least important of the five events for biotechnology. The National Labs, though engaged in a surprising amount of biological research for organizations derived from nuclear weapons research, were not then hotbeds of bioscience and best place to buy kamagra online uk biotech innovation. Event 4. A game-changing patentTuesday, December 2, marked the fourth, quietest, but not the least important of this string of biotech events.

    The U.S best place to buy kamagra online uk. Patent and Trademark Office granted U.S. Patent No best place to buy kamagra online uk. 4,237,224, “Process for producing biologically functional molecular chimera,” to two inventors, Stanley N. Cohen of Stanford and Herbert W.

    Boyer of the best place to buy kamagra online uk University of California, San Francisco. The patent was assigned to Leland Stanford Junior University and the Regents of the University of California. As my colleague Jacob Sherkow and I wrote in 2015:“That patent, the result of research conducted in 1974 on best place to buy kamagra online uk a process of creating recombinant DNA, i.e., recombining genes, appeared to be the holy grail for geneticists. Rather than tedious mutational or crossbreeding studies, the Cohen-Boyer technology allowed genetics researchers to study — and create — genes in isolation. With increasing research into the function and characterization of restriction enzymes, recombinant DNA technology opened doors for researchers to both isolate and purify individual genes as well as create analogs of their own.”I haven’t been able to find any significant publicity about this patent around the time it was awarded, but for the next two decades the Cohen-Boyer patent formed the cornerstone of both the biotech industry and of much biological research.

    It broadly claimed the methods of recombinant DNA best place to buy kamagra online uk and earned its assignees about $400 million.Stanford administered the Cohen-Boyer patent and took 15% of the proceeds for its trouble. The remainder was split evenly by Stanford and the University of California system, which distributed them in different ways. Stanford’s practice was (and remains) to give one-third of the proceeds to the inventor, one-third to the inventor’s department, and one-third to best place to buy kamagra online uk the inventor’s school. This bonanza for Stanford Medical School’s genetics department, of which Cohen was a member — about $70 million — did not endear it to Berg’s and Kornberg’s biochemistry department, which had done, in Berg’s lab and elsewhere, much of the research on recombinant DNA. On the other hand, the genetics department had been none too pleased by who had (and had not) received the Nobel Prize.It isn’t clear to me if anyone fully realized at the time the patent was granted how important — or lucrative — it would be.

    Eventually, though, best place to buy kamagra online uk the Cohen-Boyer patent helped change how universities approached commercializing research. Its large returns prompted first scores, and then hundreds, of colleges and universities to open technology licensing offices. Today about best place to buy kamagra online uk 200 such offices exist, although only about a dozen are profitable in any given year (and these are largely the same ones every year, including Stanford’s and the University of California’s). Event 5. Bayh-Dole becomes lawThe fifth and final event took place on Friday, December 12, when then-lame duck President Jimmy Carter signed the Patent and Trademark Law Amendments Act, better known as the Bayh-Dole Act.

    This law gave universities best place to buy kamagra online uk and other nonprofit research institutions a clear and easy way to own intellectual property they created, in whole or in part, with federal research funding. It is often credited with having kickstarted the biotech industry. Along with best place to buy kamagra online uk the success of the Cohen-Boyer patent, it certainly encouraged universities to view some parts of biology as potential profit centers.But it almost didn’t come to fruition. When Indiana Democrat Senator Birch Bayh and Kansas Republican Senator Bob Dole first introduced into the 95th Congress the Small Business Nonprofit Organization Patent Procedures Act, it was a time of great concern about America’s economy, beset by the 1970s “stagflation” and the perceived economic challenge from Japan.Congress did not act on the bill that year, but Bayh and Dole re-introduced it in the 96th Congress. Although Democrats controlled both the Senate and the House, President Carter opposed the bill.

    He wanted a more best place to buy kamagra online uk government-directed path, like the approach taken in the Stevenson-Wydler Act. Russell Long (D-La.), the powerful chair of the Senate Finance Committee, opposed the bill from a more populist perspective. He wanted the government to best place to buy kamagra online uk get http://www.ec-ham-harthouse-cath-haguenau.ac-strasbourg.fr/page-d-exemple/ as much profit as possible from any patents. The bill did not pass either chamber before the November 1980 election.That election brought Ronald Reagan to the White House and also cost the Democrats 12 Senate seats, which would give the Republicans in the 97th Congress, starting in January 1981, their first Senate majority since 1954. One of the Democrats who would not be returning to the Senate was Birch Bayh, defeated by future Vice President Dan Quayle.The 96th Congress, still with a majority Democratic Senate, held a lame-duck session after the November election, one of 16 such sessions in the 39 Congresses since 1940.

    The urgency for it came from the lack of budget authority for most of the government, but also for some other important, difficult, and controversial legislation that had been put off until after the election.Strong support for Bayh-Dole in their ranks best place to buy kamagra online uk kept the soon-to-be majority Senate Republicans from opposing its passage. But for the bill to be voted on in that session required unanimous consent of the Senate — which meant a thumbs up from Long. He acquiesced, supposedly out of respect and friendship for his departing colleague, Birch Bayh.President Carter did not give best place to buy kamagra online uk any indication whether he would sign the bill. The Constitution gives a president 10 days (not counting Sundays) to veto a bill, sign a bill, or let it become law without his signature. On the last possible day, December 12, Carter signed it.It is ironic that the Cohen-Boyer patent was issued and assigned to Stanford and UCSF before Bayh-Dole made it easier for universities to patent inventions that had benefited from federal funding.

    Both institutions had used money from the NIH and best place to buy kamagra online uk private foundations in the relevant recombinant DNA research, but they did not have to wait for Bayh-Dole’s passage to patent the invention. A pre-existing patent agreement existed between the federal Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (the precursor of the Department of Health and Human Services) and Stanford’s Office of Technology Licensing that allowed Stanford and UCSF to patent the technology before Bayh-Dole took effect.So in two days short of two months, the nascent biotech industry and university biotechnology research were propelled into the future with a Nobel prize, a stunning biotech IPO, two research commercialization acts, and a fundamental patent. And no one best place to buy kamagra online uk at the time seemed to notice their collective importance. True, there were other things going on then. During the first three weeks, Republican Ronald Reagan, who at the time seemed to be at the conservative extreme of American politics, was challenging moderately conservative Democrat Jimmy Carter, and on November 4 defeated Carter after only one term in office.

    For the best place to buy kamagra online uk entire period, 53 U.S. Diplomats and citizens from the American Embassy in Tehran, Iran, were being held captive, marking their first full year of detention in early November. The economy was still reeling from the second oil crisis and its best place to buy kamagra online uk resulting high inflation (and was about to plunge into a sharp recession).In the midst of all that, largely unnoticed, the building blocks of a new era in biotechnology came together.And so it often is with history. Some crucial events are obvious. Others sneak up on us.

    And blatant or obscure, through all these momentous best place to buy kamagra online uk historical periods, we go on with our day-to-day jobs, loves, and lives, only rarely looking back and noticing the times in which we lived — sometimes only after 40 years.Henry T. Greely, J.D., is professor of law and professor by courtesy of genetics at Stanford University, where he directs the Stanford Center for Law and the Biosciences and chairs the steering committee for the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics. He thanks Jacob Sherkow and Robert Cook-Deegan for their helpful comments on the article, as well as his research assistants, Brittany Cazakoff best place to buy kamagra online uk and Cassidy Amber Pomeroy-Carter.In a defiant move, AMAG Pharmaceuticals (AMAG) is refusing to voluntarily withdraw its controversial treatment for preventing premature births, despite a request to do so made earlier this month by the Food and Drug Administration. Instead, the drug maker is seeking a hearing to review the rationale given by the regulator for wanting its Makena medication pulled off the market.The agency explained that a required post-marketing study had failed to verify a clinical benefit and that available evidence does not show Makena is effective for its approved use. A year ago, an FDA advisory panel reached the same conclusion and recommended that the drug — which has been a standard of care across the U.S.

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    Https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(20)30227-8Photo. IStock/hapabapaVisit the Harvard Chan School website for the latest news, press releases, and multimedia offerings.Nicole Rura617.221.4241nrura@hsph.harvard.edu###Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health brings together dedicated experts from many disciplines to educate new generations of global health leaders and produce powerful ideas that improve the lives and health of people everywhere. As a community of leading scientists, educators, and students, we work together to take innovative ideas from the laboratory to people’s lives—not only making scientific breakthroughs, but also working to change individual behaviors, public policies, and health care practices. Each year, more than 400 faculty members at Harvard Chan School teach 1,000-plus full-time students from around the world and train thousands more through online and executive education courses.

    Founded in 1913 as the Harvard-MIT School of Health Officers, the School is recognized as America’s oldest professional training program in public health.CORVALLIS, Ore. €“ Oregon State University scientists have developed a method that could potentially predict the cancer-causing potential of chemicals released into the air during wildfires and fossil fuel combustion. The research, which was recently published in the journal Toxicology in Vitro, was conducted as a part of the OSU Superfund Research Program. The findings are important for agencies that regulate air pollution caused by these chemicals, known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It also could help medical researchers who study patients with conditions such as asthma.

    PAHs are a class of chemicals that occur naturally in coal, crude oil and gasoline. They also are produced when coal, oil, gas, wood, garbage and tobacco are burned. At high levels, as was the case during recent wildfires in the western United States, when PAHs are inhaled they can be harmful to human health. Despite PAHs being the first class of chemicals identified as cancer-causing, little is known about the carcinogenic potential of the more than 1,500 PAHs. Part of the challenge is that PAHs usually occur as a mixture of chemicals, making it difficult to tease apart roles of individual chemicals in the mixture.

    The OSU researchers, led by Susan Tilton, an associate professor in the Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology in the College of Agricultural Sciences, have been studying PAHs for over six years. They previously developed a system to predict whether tumors formed in mice exposed to certain PAHs. The current research translates that approach using human bronchial cells. The researchers treated the cells with individual PAHs and then used computational analysis to look at changes across thousands of genes simultaneously to identify gene signatures. They then looked for gene signatures consistent across the different chemicals with similar carcinogenic potential.

    €œThose with similar carcinogenic potential are the ones we can focus on,” Tilton said. €œPotentially, in the future we wouldn’t need to look at thousands and thousands of genes. Once we tested enough chemicals and felt very confident about this we could drill down and look at a select handful of genes in order to make these types of predictions.” In the future, the researchers plan to expand the number of chemicals that they test, particularly chemicals whose carcinogenic potential is not well understood. They also want to study lung cells from people with pre-existing conditions, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, to see if they are particularly sensitive to certain chemicals. Co-authors of the paper were Yvonne Chang, Celine Thanh Thu Huynh, Kelley M.

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    In addition, the student must undertake an oral defence of their work through a discussion (the ‘viva’) with examiners, who are deemed to be experts in the field of study or with related methodological expertise.2A thesis is a self-contained monograph written by the student which:Sets out the problem and context of the research, including theoretical perspectives.Outlines existing approaches that have addressed the problem or related issues before, typically by undertaking a thorough critical analysis of literature and identifying a gap in the evidence.Justifies and critically evaluates the research methodologies and methods chosen to address the problem.Presents the finding of the research and how they add to existing knowledge.Makes recommendations as to how the findings can advance the discipline and improve practice, and/or suggest further research directions.What criteria are used to assess a PhD thesis?. The core criteria for PhD success—ubiquitous to all disciplines and universities—are that the student;Has made an original and significant contribution to knowledge of the topic under investigation;Draws on a well-argued and cohesive conceptual/theoretical framework;Demonstrates the ability to critically kamagra uk delivery evaluate and justify the research methodology and methods adopted;Can convey information (written and verbally) succinctly;Produces a thesis is of sufficient rigour that the work is evaluated as publishable in relevant discipline-specific journal(s).Table 1 highlights some of the key ingredients of PhD success, in terms of the study, thesis and viva.View this table:Table 1 Key principles to PhD study successJustifying methodsThe justification of methodological choices is usually presented in a distinct chapter that typically has two components. First, a ‘big picture’ description of the theoretical perspective and methodological justification (sometimes called the research approach), followed by an account of procedure (methods) kamagra uk delivery of how the research was undertaken.Critical writingAn essential criterion expected from examiners is that students demonstrate criticality in the way they present and defend information. This can be a challenge, and many PhD students perceive that there is little guidance about how to develop effective arguments and few opportunities to develop critical writing skills.2 3 Similar to developing knowledge and understanding of research methods, students need the knowledge and skills for effective oral communication of ideas and writing.3The student must be able to write succinctly and critically to produce a robust and coherent thesis.2 4 A thesis should open with a clear outline of the problem, informing the reader what the thesis about and why the topic is important.

    It should detail kamagra uk delivery what contexts and perspectives are relevant and offer an outline to the layout of the thesis. In all chapters, students should consider the following:Use of ‘signposts’ to tell the reader where they are going to go, summarising afterwards and providing appropriate links throughout.Meaningful headings. The content kamagra uk delivery of chapters and sections need to reflect the heading.Avoidance of vague terms or superfluous words, keeping sentences clear and focussed.Paragraphs that are distinct enough to explore and evaluate a clear issue but linked well enough to enhance the flow of the thesis. A general rule of thumb is that a paragraph should be about half a page kamagra uk delivery.

    Any less and there is limited criticality, any longer and there is a tendency to ramble, lose focus and cause the reader to become disengaged.A PhD is not about how much the student can write. It is about how well they articulate and critically analyse information.Critical writing at Doctoral level is kamagra uk delivery essential to establish the quality of the research and the credibility of the researcher. A good thesis creates a portrait of an authoritative and competent researcher, and critical writing is crucial for building the examiners’ confidence in the research undertaken.Publishable standard of the workPublishing in refereed journals and conferences is the traditional kamagra uk delivery way in which the research community disseminates findings and builds knowledge, although there is increasing recognition of the role of social media platforms as a means of rapidly sharing knowledge. Refereed journals use recognised standards (such as the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) guidelines for trials)5 and rigorous review processes to assess the quality of a research paper, which must be met for successful publication.

    It is therefore unsurprising that many examiners view a thesis more favourably if a kamagra uk delivery student provides evidence of having published elements of their work.6Summary of key considerationsUnlike undergraduate assessment, there is a paucity of research exploring the assessment of PhDs. However, a study that explored the process and judgements of experienced examiners,6 provided a valuable summary of the characteristics of a poor and excellent thesis (table 2).View this table:Table 2 Characteristics of a poor and excellent thesis6ConclusionThis article has outlined some of the steps that a PhD student should consider in order to produce a high-quality thesis and ensure a successful viva. We have considered kamagra uk delivery how it is important that decision-making is transparent in the thesis, and defendable in the oral defence/viva. A PhD thesis should show evidence of originality and theoretical/conceptual cohesiveness, communicated via the student’s critical writing ability.

    The thesis and defence provide students with the kamagra uk delivery opportunity to share their knowledge and expertise in the field, offers them a methodological stage and gives the platform to share their critical perceptions, experiences and expertise.Commentary on. Carlton E, Kohne J, Shankar-Hari, et al kamagra uk delivery. Readmission diagnoses after paediatric severe sepsis hospitalisation. Crit Care Med 2019;47:583–90.Implications for practice and researchChildren with coexisting comorbidities when discharged following severe sepsis have a higher rate of readmission as compared with matched hospitalisations for other acute medical conditions.There is a need for internationally agreed evidence-based guidelines/consensus paper to minimise post-sepsis readmissions through identification of potentially preventable factors, appropriate discharge criteria and parental education.More research is required into strategies towards prevention of readmissions following discharge after an episode of severe sepsis in children.ContextSepsis is a leading cause kamagra uk delivery of avoidable death across all age groups.1 Attempts have been made to streamline the management pathways in the UK and elsewhere through publication of national guidelines.1 While robust guidelines exist for management of initial sepsis episodes, strategies to identify and prevent readmissions are necessary.

    All doctoral students strive for best place to buy kamagra online uk the day—after years of often all-consuming study—that their thesis is ready to submit. For both doctoral students and supervisors there is often trepidation about whether the thesis will meet the criteria to merit the best place to buy kamagra online uk award of a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). As anxieties increase, doctoral students often ask what makes a good PhD, something we explored in a recent ‘Research Made Simple’ article,1 but perhaps the more important question is ‘what makes a PhD student successful?. €™ In best place to buy kamagra online uk this article we outline the core criteria on which PhD theses are judged and offer suggestions for achieving success.How are PhDs assessedTraditionally, a PhD involves 3 to 4 years of full-time study (or a longer part-time programme), which is assessed by the student submitting the work they have undertaken as a thesis or—less commonly—a portfolio of published papers and an associated narrative (sometimes referred to as ‘PhD by publication’).

    In addition, the student must undertake an oral defence of their work through a discussion (the ‘viva’) with examiners, who are deemed to be experts in the field of study or with related methodological expertise.2A thesis is a self-contained monograph written by the student which:Sets out the problem and context of the research, including theoretical perspectives.Outlines existing approaches that have addressed the problem or related issues before, typically by undertaking a thorough critical analysis of literature and identifying a gap in the evidence.Justifies and critically evaluates the research methodologies and methods chosen to address the problem.Presents the finding of the research and how they add to existing knowledge.Makes recommendations as to how the findings can advance the discipline and improve practice, and/or suggest further research directions.What criteria are used to assess a PhD thesis?. The core criteria for PhD success—ubiquitous to all disciplines and universities—are that the student;Has made an original and significant contribution to knowledge of the topic under investigation;Draws on a well-argued and cohesive conceptual/theoretical framework;Demonstrates the ability to critically evaluate and justify the research methodology and methods adopted;Can convey information (written and verbally) succinctly;Produces a thesis is of sufficient rigour that the work is evaluated as publishable in relevant discipline-specific journal(s).Table 1 highlights some of the key ingredients of PhD success, in terms of the study, thesis and viva.View this table:Table 1 Key principles to PhD study best place to buy kamagra online uk successJustifying methodsThe justification of methodological choices is usually presented in a distinct chapter that typically has two components. First, a ‘big picture’ description of the theoretical perspective and methodological justification (sometimes called the research approach), followed by an account of procedure (methods) of how the research best place to buy kamagra online uk was undertaken.Critical writingAn essential criterion expected from examiners is that students demonstrate criticality in the way they present and defend information. This can be a challenge, and many PhD students perceive that there is little guidance about how to develop effective arguments and few opportunities to develop critical writing skills.2 3 Similar to developing knowledge and understanding of research methods, students need the knowledge and skills for effective oral communication of ideas and writing.3The student must be able to write succinctly and critically to produce a robust and coherent thesis.2 4 A thesis should open with a clear outline of the problem, informing the reader what the thesis about and why the topic is important.

    It should detail what contexts and perspectives are relevant and best place to buy kamagra online uk offer an outline to the layout of the thesis. In all chapters, students should consider the following:Use of ‘signposts’ to tell the reader where they are going to go, summarising afterwards and providing appropriate links throughout.Meaningful headings. The content of chapters and sections need to reflect the heading.Avoidance of vague terms or superfluous words, keeping sentences clear and focussed.Paragraphs that are distinct enough to explore and evaluate a clear issue but linked well enough to enhance the flow of best place to buy kamagra online uk the thesis. A general rule of thumb is that a paragraph best place to buy kamagra online uk should be about half a page.

    Any less and there is limited criticality, any longer and there is a tendency to ramble, lose focus and cause the reader to become disengaged.A PhD is not about how much the student can write. It is about how well they articulate and critically analyse information.Critical writing at Doctoral level best place to buy kamagra online uk is essential to establish the quality of the research and the credibility of the researcher. A good thesis creates a portrait of an authoritative and competent researcher, and critical writing is crucial for building the examiners’ confidence in the research undertaken.Publishable standard of the workPublishing in refereed best place to buy kamagra online uk journals and conferences is the traditional way in which the research community disseminates findings and builds knowledge, although there is increasing recognition of the role of social media platforms as a means of rapidly sharing knowledge. Refereed journals use recognised standards (such as the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) guidelines for trials)5 and rigorous review processes to assess the quality of a research paper, which must be met for successful publication.

    It is therefore unsurprising that many best place to buy kamagra online uk examiners view a thesis more favourably if a student provides evidence of having published elements of their work.6Summary of key considerationsUnlike undergraduate assessment, there is a paucity of research exploring the assessment of PhDs. However, a study that explored the process and judgements of experienced examiners,6 provided a valuable summary of the characteristics of a poor and excellent thesis (table 2).View this table:Table 2 Characteristics of a poor and excellent thesis6ConclusionThis article has outlined some of the steps that a PhD student should consider in order to produce a high-quality thesis and ensure a successful viva. We have considered how it is important that decision-making is transparent in the thesis, and defendable in best place to buy kamagra online uk the oral defence/viva. A PhD thesis should show evidence of originality and theoretical/conceptual cohesiveness, communicated via the student’s critical writing ability.

    The thesis and defence provide students with the opportunity to share their knowledge and expertise in the field, offers them a best place to buy kamagra online uk methodological stage and gives the platform to share their critical perceptions, experiences and expertise.Commentary on. Carlton E, Kohne best place to buy kamagra online uk J, Shankar-Hari, et al. Readmission diagnoses after paediatric severe sepsis hospitalisation. Crit Care Med 2019;47:583–90.Implications for practice and researchChildren with coexisting comorbidities when discharged following severe sepsis have a higher rate of readmission as compared with matched hospitalisations for other acute medical conditions.There is a need for internationally agreed evidence-based guidelines/consensus paper to minimise post-sepsis readmissions through identification of potentially preventable factors, appropriate discharge criteria and parental education.More research is required into strategies towards prevention of readmissions following discharge after an episode of severe sepsis in children.ContextSepsis is a leading cause of avoidable death across all age groups.1 Attempts have been made best place to buy kamagra online uk to streamline the management pathways in the UK and elsewhere through publication of national guidelines.1 While robust guidelines exist for management of initial sepsis episodes, strategies to identify and prevent readmissions are necessary.

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Lose the shirt off my back? Nah.

When life got dicey, I opened my closet doors, bypassed the blouses, and earned a (modest) payday by selling used hangers in 25-pack bundles.

More recently, I put my hustle into play at 500 Startups, the world’s most active venture capital fund and startup accelerator, where I led content, branding, marketing, operations, and corporate partnerships for business development and global programs.

Before transitioning into tech, I worked in higher education, teaching online research and media production classes across a variety of disciplines at the University of California, Berkeley. During that time, I also worked as the Director and Executive Producer of Digital Media Projects at the Blum Center for Developing Economies, where I co-founded and led The #GlobalPOV Project, a mixed-media approach to thinking about poverty, inequality, and undertaking poverty action.

In addition, I was the Director of Media at the Center for Middle Eastern Studies, where I had the opportunity to interview Bashar al-Assad in his presidential palace in Damascus, Syria, in late December of 2010. I asked Assad if he considered himself a dictator. He dodged the inquiry, but his actions in the immediate weeks, months, and years to follow answered the question . . . and then some. Sadly.

Before that, I was a practicing journalist and graduate fellow at the University of Southern California. During that time, I worked as a web reporter and photographer for KCET’s “SoCal Connected,”​ as an online editor for the London-based New Statesman magazine, and as the co-editor-in-chief of USC Annenberg’s award-winning digital news website. I got my start in journalism as a full-time associate editor (and employee #20!) at P✪PSUGAR, a Sequoia-backed content and commerce startup turned global media empire.

My freelance reporting has been featured in NBC, CBS, and ABC news broadcasts and in online publications, including The Huffington Post. I have also done manuscript editing for various authors with recognized commercial and university presses.

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